许蕾姆苏丹

(重定向自罗克塞拉娜

罗克塞拉娜(Roxelana,1502年-1558年4月15日),土耳其语许蕾姆(Hürrem,意为“高兴者”),阿拉伯语卡里玛(كريمة,意为“尊贵者”),奥斯曼帝国苏丹苏莱曼一世蘇丹皇后英语Haseki Sultan

許蕾姆蘇丹
Hürrem Sultan
خرم سلطان
Tizian 123.jpg
提香所繪的許蕾姆蘇丹畫像,約1550年
奥斯曼帝国蘇丹皇后英语Haseki Sultan
在位 1533/1534年 – 1558年4月15日
前任 無,新頭銜
繼任 努爾巴努蘇丹
出生 约 1502–04年
波蘭王國羅加京
逝世 1558年4月15日 (約 53–56歲)
奥斯曼帝国伊斯坦堡托卡比皇宮
安葬
配偶 蘇萊曼一世
子嗣
父親 Havrylo Lisowski[1]
宗教信仰 在出生時受洗為東正教徒,後皈依伊斯蘭教遜尼派

羅克塞拉娜原名已不可考,但在19世纪乌克兰民间传说中,她被称为“安娜斯塔西娅”,波兰传说则称其为“亚历山德拉·利索斯卡”,在其他欧洲语言中通称其为柔克塞拉娜,意为“乌克兰人”。

根据17世纪初期波兰诗人Samuel Twardowski的考证,柔克塞拉娜出身于一个利沃夫(当时属于波兰)附近的一个乌克兰东正教家庭。在一次克里米亚汗国对当地的劫掠中被掠为奴,并被售往伊斯坦布尔,在那里她被挑选入苏丹的后宫。很快她就获得了苏莱曼一世的宠爱。在一次后宫的争宠过程中,柔克塞拉娜被蘇丹宠妃居尔巴哈尔苏丹殴打,盛怒之下的苏莱曼一世立即将居尔巴哈尔苏丹,连同她的爱子穆斯塔法皇子(当时的王储)一同流放,后又将穆斯塔法处死。

柔克塞拉娜为苏莱曼养育了6个孩子,其后更是令人吃惊地成为他的正室。在其影响下,终其一生奥斯曼帝国和其祖国波兰都保持了和平。苏莱曼一世逝世后,柔克塞拉娜的儿子塞利姆二世继承了苏丹宝座。

柔克塞拉娜在伊斯坦布尔、耶路撒冷麦加等地修建了大量的公共建筑,著名的有许蕾姆苏丹公共浴场等。

柔克塞拉娜传奇的一生成为许多艺术作品的题材,其中有名的有约瑟夫·海顿的63号交响曲等。

圖集编辑

註釋编辑

  1. ^ Dr Galina I Yermolenko. Roxolana in European Literature, History and Culturea. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2013: 275. ISBN 978-1-409-47611-5. (原始内容存档于2017-01-14). 

延伸阅读编辑

  • Leslie Peirce. Empress of the East: How a European Slave Girl Became Queen of the Ottoman Empire. New York Basic Books, 2017. ISBN 978-0-465-03251-8.
  • There are many historical novels in English about Roxelana: P.J. Parker's Roxelana and Suleyman [1] (2012; Revised 2016); Barbara Chase Riboud's Valide (1986); Alum Bati's Harem Secrets (2008); Colin Falconer, Aileen Crawley (1981–83), and Louis Gardel (2003); Pawn in Frankincense, the fourth book of the Lymond Chronicles by Dorothy Dunnett; and pulp fiction author Robert E. Howard in The Shadow of the Vulture imagined Roxelana to be sister to its fiery-tempered female protagonist, Red Sonya.
  • David Chataignier, "Roxelane on the French Tragic Stage (1561-1681)" in Fortune and Fatality: Performing the Tragic in Early Modern France, ed. Desmond Hosford and Charles Wrightington (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008), 95-117.
  • Thomas M. Prymak, "Roxolana: Wife of Suleiman the Magnificent," Nashe zhyttia/Our Life, LII, 10 (New York, 1995), 15–20. An illustrated popular-style article in English with a bibliography.
  • Zygmunt Abrahamowicz, "Roksolana," Polski Slownik Biograficzny, vo. XXXI (Wroclaw-etc., 1988–89), 543–5. A well-informed article in Polish by a distinguished Polish Turkologist.
  • Galina Yermolenko, "Roxolana: The Greatest Empresse of the East," The Muslim World, 95, 2 (2005), 231–48. Makes good use of European, especially Italian, sources and is familiar with the literature in Ukrainian and Polish.
  • Galina Yermolenko (ed.), Roxolana in European Literature, History and Culture (Farmham, UK: Ashgate, 2010). 318 pp. Illustrated. Contains important articles by Oleksander Halenko and others, as well as several translations of works about Roxelana from various European literatures, and an extensive bibliography.
  • For Ukrainian language novels, see Osyp Nazaruk (1930) (English translation is available),[2] Mykola Lazorsky (1965), Serhii Plachynda (1968), and Pavlo Zahrebelnyi (1980).
  • There have been novels written in other languages: in French, a fictionalized biography by Willy Sperco (1972); in German, a novel by Johannes Tralow (1944, reprinted many times); a very detailed novel in Serbo-Croatian by Radovan Samardzic (1987); one in Turkish by Ulku Cahit (2001).

外部链接编辑

  1. ^ Roxelana and Suleyman. www.facebook.com. (原始内容存档于2017-01-14). 
  2. ^ Nazaruk, Osyp. Roxelana –通过Amazon.