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美国的大规模枪击事件

1982年至2016年间美国每年因大规模枪击事件的死亡总人数[1]

美国是世界上發生大规模枪击事件次数最多的國家[2][3][4][5]。“大规模枪击事件”的定义通常为:除凶手自身以外,至少四人死亡的枪击事件。虽然定义规定四人以上死亡才可称“大规模”,但数据显示在1967年到2017年间美国发生的146起大规模枪击事件中,包括凶手在内,每起事件平均有8人死亡[6]。在这些事件中,枪手大部分最终採取自杀手段、或被击毙,亦或被刑警或市民制服[7]

目录

定义编辑

美國沒有對「大规模枪击事件」採用固定的定义[8]。2003年1月,美国国会通过了一项有关暴力犯罪的法案(The Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012),该法案定义“大规模杀害事件”为除凶手自身以外,至少三人死亡的事件[9][10][11]。2015年,美国国会研究服务定义大规模枪击事件为“在事件發生及其相邻区域内,至少四名受害者被枪击杀害的多重杀人犯罪”[12]。非营利组织“枪支暴力档案”所使用的宽泛定义则是“除凶手自身以外,至少四人被枪击(无论死亡与否)的事件”[13],而此定义也往往为新闻界和非盈利组织所采用[14][15][16][17][18]

最严重的枪击事件编辑

以下是美国现代史上最为严重的二十起规模枪击事件。

  為以往排位第一的大規模枪击事件。
事件 年份 死亡人数 受傷人數 武器种类 参考
1 拉斯维加斯袭击 2017 59 (包括枪手) 槍傷英语Gunshot wound的超過400
總共超過800
半自动步枪 [19][20][21]
2 奥兰多夜店枪击案 2016 50 (包括枪手) 53 半自动步枪 [19][20]
3 弗吉尼亚理工大学校园枪击案 2007 33 (包括枪手) 23 手枪 [19]
4 桑迪·胡克小学枪击案 2012 28 (包括枪手) 02 半自动步枪和手动步枪 [19]
5 萨瑟兰泉教堂枪击案 2017 27 (包括枪手) 20 半自动步枪 [22][20]
6 露比餐厅枪击案 1991 24 (包括枪手) 27 手枪 [19]
7 聖思多羅麥當勞大屠殺 1984 22 (包括枪手) 19 多种武器 [19]
8 University of Texas tower shooting英语University of Texas tower shooting 1966 18 (包括枪手) 31 多种武器 [19]
9 2018年佛罗里达校园枪击案 2018 17 17 半自动步枪 [23]
10 2015年圣贝纳迪诺枪击案 2015 16 (包括枪手) 24 半自动步枪 [19][20]
11 Edmond post office shooting英语Edmond post office shooting 1986 15 (包括枪手) 06 手枪 [19]
哥伦拜恩校园事件 1999 15 (包括枪手) 24 多种武器 [24]
13 宾厄姆顿枪击案 2009 14 (包括枪手) 04 手枪 [24]
14 Camden shootings英语Howard Unruh 1949 13 03 手枪 [24]
Wilkes-Barre shootings英语George Banks 1982 13 01 半自动步枪 [24]
2009年胡德堡枪击案 2009 13 33 手枪 [24]
华盛顿海军工厂枪击事件 2013 13 (包括枪手) 08 散弹枪和手枪 [24]
18 2012年奥罗拉枪击事件 2012 12 70 多种武器 [24][20]
19 Geneva County massacre英语Geneva County massacre 2009 11 (包括枪手) 待更新 半自动步枪 [24]
20 GMAC shootings英语James_Edward_Pough 1990 10 (包括枪手) 待更新 半自动步枪 [19]
Atlanta shootings英语Mark O. Barton 1999 10 (包括枪手) 12 手枪 [19]
红湖高中校园枪击案 2005 10 (包括枪手) 待更新 多种武器 [24]
安普瓜社区学院枪击案 2015 10 (包括枪手) 待更新 手枪 [24]

参看编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ US Mass Shootings, 1982–2017: Data From Mother Jones’ Investigation. 
  2. ^ U.S. Leads World in Mass Shootings. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved: October 2, 2017.
  3. ^ Why the US has the most mass shootings. CNN. Retrieved: October 2, 2017.
  4. ^ Why the U.S. is No. 1 – in mass shootings. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved: October 2, 2017.
  5. ^ The United States Has Had More Mass Shootings Than Any Other Country. Mother Jones. Retrieved: October 2, 2017.
  6. ^ Berkowitz, Bonnie; Gamio, Lazaro; Lu, Denise; Uhrmacher, Kevin; Lindeman, Todd. 50 years of U.S. mass shootings: The victims, sites, killers and weapons. Washington Post. 5 October 2017 [5 November 2017]. 
  7. ^ Blair, John Pete; Schweit, Katherine W., A Study of Active Shooter Incidents, 2000–2013 (PDF), Washington DC: Texas State University and Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014 
  8. ^ Greenberg, Jacobson & Valverde, Jon, Louis & Miriam. What we know about mass shootings. Tampa Bay Times. February 14, 2018 [20 February 2018]. As noted above, there is no widely accepted definition of mass shootings. People use either broad or restrictive definitions of mass shootings to reinforce their stance on gun control. After the 2012 Sandy Hook school shooting, Congress defined "mass killings" as three or more homicides in a single incident. The definition was intended to clarify when the U.S. Attorney General could assist state and local authorities in investigations of violent acts and shootings in places of public use. 
  9. ^ H.R. 2076 (112th): Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012. United States Congress. [20 February 2018]. (I)the term mass killings means 3 or more killings in a single incident;  
  10. ^ Ingraham, Christopher. What makes a 'mass shooting' in America. Washington Post. 3 December 2015 [5 November 2017]. But starting in 2013, federal statutes defined "mass killing" as three or more people killed, regardless of weapons. 
  11. ^ Follman, Mark. What Exactly Is A Mass Shooting. Mother Jones. [August 9, 2015]. In January 2013, a mandate for federal investigation of mass shootings authorized by President Barack Obama lowered that baseline to three or more victims killed.  
  12. ^ Krouse, William J. Mass Murder with Firearms: Incidents and Victims, 1999-2013 (pdf). Congressional Research Service. July 30, 2015 [21 February 2018]. 
  13. ^ General Methodology. [21 February 2018]. 
  14. ^ Nichols, Chris. How is a ‘mass shooting’ defined?. 4 October 2017 [21 February 2018]. 
  15. ^ Christensen, Jen. Why the U.S. has the most mass shootings. CNN. August 28, 2015. 
  16. ^ About the Mass Shooting Tracker. [13 June 2016]. 
  17. ^ Orlando club shootings: Full fury of gun battle emerges. 13 June 2016 [13 June 2016].  Cites Mass Shooting Tracker
  18. ^ Axelrod, Jim. Are Americans becoming "numb" to mass shootings?. 6 November 2017 [21 February 2018]. 
  19. ^ 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 Deadliest Mass Shootings in Modern US History Fast Facts. CNN. [5 November 2017]. 
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Texas gunman used same rifle as Las Vegas, Newtown mass shooters. NY Daily News. [2017-11-07] (英语). 
  21. ^ https://m.lasvegassun.com/news/2018/jan/19/sheriff-to-provide-update-about-strip-mass-shootin/
  22. ^ Carissimo, Justin. 26 dead in shooting at church in Sutherland Springs, Texas. CBS News. 6 November 2017 [6 November 2017]. 
  23. ^ Emanuella Grinberg; Eric Levensen. At least 17 dead in Florida school shooting, law enforcement says. CNN. February 14, 2018 [February 14, 2018]. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 Terrorist attacks and related incidents in the United States. johnstonarchive.net. [6 November 2017].