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本條目主要描述猶太教文獻中的耶書(Yeshu)。関於希伯来語的類似發音的名字請参看耶書亞

耶書 (希伯来語ישו ,Yeshu) 指代 托塞夫塔, 巴比倫的塔木德Toledot Yeshu記述的一個或者多個人。托塞夫塔 (c 200) 和巴比倫的塔木德 (c 500) rarely[1]Adin Steinsaltz認為耶書可能指生活在公元1或者2世紀的1個人。[2]還有一些学者認為他就是指耶穌。

词源编辑

 
The Greek transliteration Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous) *jesu-os → [jeˈsus] can stand for both Classical Biblical Hebrew Yehoshua [jəhoˈʃuaʕ] (top two) and Late Biblical Hebrew Yeshua [jeˈʃuaʕ] (bottom). This later form developed within Hebrew (not Aramaic).[3] All three spelling variants occur in the Hebrew Bible, including when referring to the same person. During the Second Temple Period, Jews of Galilee tended to preserve the traditional spelling, keeping the <ו> letter for the [o] in the first syllable, even adding an additional letter for the [u] in the second syllable. However, Jews of Jerusalem tended to spell the name as they pronounced it, [jeˈʃuaʕ], contracting the spelling to ישוע without the [o] letter. Later, Aramaic references to the Hebrew Bible adopted the contracted phonetic form of this Hebrew name as an Aramaic name.

Yeshu一次源自希伯来语,是“拯救”、“传达”之意[4],在犹太人第二圣殿时期一直保持着这种用法,耶書一词在亚拉姆语和希伯来语圣经中被广泛使用:希伯来圣经中多次同时使用Yeshu和Joshua。

鉴定耶書和耶穌的関系编辑

已知最早的巴比伦塔木德en:Babylonian_Talmud 公元500年)中出现的耶書被认为指的就是基督教中的耶穌,该说法源自中世纪,现代学者对此有各种不同观点[5]。部分当代学者认为这些段落指向基督教和基督徒描述的耶稣[6],另外一部分学者认为这些段落是后世拉比添加的内容[7][8],塔木德学者Johann Maier认为米書拿和两个塔木德版本均没有记录耶稣[9]塔木德中关于耶稣的生活时间的描述是矛盾的,Sotah 47aSanhedrin 107中表示耶稣生活在Alexander Jannaeus的统治时期 (公元前103~ 前76年),但是Sanhedrin 43a中提到耶稣于公元200~500年之间被处死。

参考文献编辑

引用编辑

  1. ^ Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. 譯自德文 (1996版)
  2. ^ Jesus' Death Now Debated by Jews by Eric J. Greenberg, The Jewish Week, USA, 2003年10月3日刊
  3. ^ David Talshir, 'Rabbinic Hebrew as Reflected in Personal Names', Scripta Hierosylamitana vol. 37, Magnes Press, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, 1998:374ff.
  4. ^ Brown Driver Briggs Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon; Hendrickson Publishers 1996 ISBN 1-56563-206-0
  5. ^ The Blackwell Companion to Jesus p220 Delbert Burkett - 2010 "That is to say, varying presuppositions as to the extent to which the ancient rabbis were preoccupied with Jesus and Christianity can easily predetermine which texts might be identified and interpreted as having him in mind."
  6. ^ Robert E. Van Voorst. Jesus outside the New Testament. 2000 ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. p. 124. "This is likely an inference from the Talmud and other Jewish usage, where Jesus is called Yeshu, and other Jews with the same name are called by the fuller name Yehoshua, "Joshua""
  7. ^ Meier, John P. The Roots of the Problem and the Person (Convenience link). A marginal Jew: rethinking the historical Jesus 1. Anchor Bible Series. 1991: 98 [August 3, 2011]. ISBN 978-0-385-26425-9. LCCN 91010538. OCLC 316164636. While not accepting the full, radical approach of Maier, I think we can agree with him on one basic point: in the earliest rabbinic sources, there is no clear or even probable reference to Jesus of Nazareth. Furthermore, I favor the view that, when we do finally find such references in later rabbinic literature, they are most probably reactions to Christian claims, oral or written. 
  8. ^ Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. 1998: 74–76. ISBN 978-0-8006-3122-2. LCCN 98016181. OCLC 38590348. 
  9. ^ Johann Maier, Jesus von Nazareth in der talmudischen Uberlieferung (Ertrage der Forschung 82; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978)

来源编辑

  • Steven Bayme, Understanding Jewish History (KTAV), 1997
  • Daniel Boyarin, Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999
  • Robert Goldenberg, The Nations Know Ye Not: Ancient Jewish Attitudes towards Other Religions New York: New York University Press 1998
  • Mark Hirshman, A Rivalry of Genius: Jewish and Christian Biblical Interpretation in Late Antiquity trans. Baya Stein. Albany: SUNY PRess 1996
  • Joseph Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth (Beacon Books), 1964
  • Jacob Neusner, Judaism in the Matrix of Christianity Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1986
  • Jeffrey Rubenstein Rabbinic Stories (The Classics of Western Spirituality) New York: The Paulist Press, 2002
  • R. Travers Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (KTAV), 1975

外部連結编辑