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背楯亞目(學名:Notaspidea),原作背楯目,是海蛞蝓的一個人工分類群組,現時已經被分成兩個互不相關的群組:傘螺目英语Umbraculida側鰓目Pleurobranchmorpha[1]。從2018年起,本分類被認為是裸側類支序之下的側鰓目(Pleurobranchida)的異名[1]

分類學變更歷史编辑

本分類原最初由1883年由法國動物學家保羅·亨利·菲舍爾德语Paul Henri Fischer (Malakologe)設置,當時包括側鰓海牛屬英语PleurobranchusPleurobranchus)及傘螺屬英语Umbraculum (gastropod)Umbrella)兩屬,並歸類於覆鰓類英语Tectibranchia(Tectibranchiata)之中[2]。4

背楯類物種包括有海蛞蝓和一種被稱為「假笠貝」的海洋腹足綱軟體動物的分類,直腹足亞綱後生腹足下綱後鰓目的成員。然而,在較新的2005年布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類,the families Umbraculidae and Tylodinidae belong to the superfamily Umbraculoidea Dall英语W.H. Dall, 1889, part of the clade Umbraculida. Grande et al. (2004) found Umbraculoidea to be a sister clade to the Cephalaspidea (Acteonoidea excluded).[3]

The families Tylodinidae英语Tylodinidae and Umbraculidae英语Umbraculidae have large limpet-like external shells and a small mantle, while the species in the family Pleurobranchidae have a prominent mantle and an internal shell that becomes reduced or is lost in adults.[4] Many species produce mantle secretions as a chemical defense against predators [5]

由於側鰓科與傘螺科並不具單系性,因此兩後來被拆分,本分類元也於被處理為側鰓目(Pleurobranchida)的同物異名[2]

编辑

本亞目包括下列三個科:

註釋编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 WoRMS. Notaspidea. World Register of Marine Species. 2014 [2018-03-20]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Notaspidea. www.marinespecies.org. [2018-04-04] (英语). 
  3. ^ Grande C.; J. Templado; J.L. Cervera; R. Zardoya. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox1, tmV, and rmL genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2004, 33 (2): 378–388. PMID 15336672. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.06.008. 
  4. ^ R. Willan. Phylogenetic systematics of the Notaspidea (Opisthobranchia) with a reappraisal of families and genera. Am. Malacol. Bull. 1987, 5: 215–241. 
  5. ^ Aldo Spinella; Ernesto Mollo; Enrico Trivellone; Guido Cimino. Testudinariol A and B, two unusual triterpenoids from the skin and the mucus of the marine mollusc Pleurobrancus testudinarius.. Tetrahedron. December 1997, 53 (49): 16891–16896. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(97)10124-7. 

參考文獻编辑

  • Notaspidea. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (英语). 
  • Powell A. W. B.英语Arthur William Baden Powell, New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1

外部連結编辑