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臂神经丛英文:brachial plexus)為一神經叢。起源于第五節頸椎神經(C5)到第一節胸椎神經(T1)的前支。在上肢内连接鎖骨上臂前臂的神经丛的名称。

臂神经丛
Subclavius 1st part ja.png
右侧部的表面解剖图,在前斜角肌日语前斜角筋后部便是臂神经丛。
细节
拉丁语 plexus brachialis
來源 C5英语cervical spinal nerve 5C6英语cervical spinal nerve 6C7英语cervical spinal nerve 7C8英语cervical spinal nerve 8T1英语thoracic spinal nerve 1
支配 上肢感覺與運動
识别标示
Gray's p.930
MeSH A08.800.800.720.050
Dorlands p_24/12647576
TA英语Terminologia Anatomica A14.2.03.001
FMA FMA:5906
解剖学术语英语Anatomical terminology

臂神经丛會由cervicoaxillary canal英语cervicoaxillary canal進入腋窩,支配上肢。

脊髓神经在头部、后背、肩部的分支与上肢中后头、颈部、锁骨的颈神经丛相互连接被称作颈臂神经丛

目录

臂神经丛的构成编辑

臂神经丛是第5颈神经~第1胸神经的前枝構成,分为神经干神经束

第5、第6颈神经的前支相交上神经干,第7颈神经的前支相交中神经干,第8颈神经和第1胸神经前支相交下神经干。上・中神经干的分支(前部)与外側神经束(C5~C7),上、中、下的神经干的分支(後部)与后神经束(C5~Th1),下神经幹的分支(前部)与内側神经束(C8、Th1)共同形成。

臂神经丛的分支编辑

臂神经丛的分支大体上可以分为锁骨上支和锁骨下支。

鎖骨上枝编辑

鎖骨下枝编辑

分支编辑

粗體表示的是主要脊神經根。斜體則表示經常匯入該神經的神經根,但不一定會匯入該神經。

來源 神經 神經根[1] 支配肌肉 皮神經支配英语Cutaneous innervation
脊神經根 背肩胛神經 C4, C5 大菱肌英语rhomboid major小菱肌英语rhomboid minor,和提肩胛肌英语levator scapulae -
脊神經根 long thoracic nerve C5, C6, C7 serratus anterior -
脊神經根 branch to phrenic nerve C5 Diaphragm -
上神經幹 nerve to the subclavius C5, C6 subclavius muscle -
上神經幹 suprascapular nerve C5, C6 supraspinatus and infraspinatus -
外神經幹 lateral pectoral nerve C5, C6, C7 pectoralis major and pectoralis minor (by communicating with the medial pectoral nerve) -
外神經幹 musculocutaneous nerve C5, C6, C7 coracobrachialis, brachialis and biceps brachii becomes the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm
外神經幹 lateral root of the median nerve C5, C6, C7 fibres to the median nerve -
後神經幹 upper subscapular nerve C5, C6 subscapularis (upper part) -
後神經幹 thoracodorsal nerve (middle subscapular nerve) C6, C7, C8 latissimus dorsi -
後神經幹 lower subscapular nerve C5, C6 subscapularis (lower part ) and teres major -
後神經幹 axillary nerve C5, C6 anterior branch: deltoid and a small area of overlying skin
posterior branch: teres minor and deltoid muscles
posterior branch becomes upper lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm
後神經幹 radial nerve C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 triceps brachii, supinator, anconeus, the extensor muscles of the forearm, and brachioradialis skin of the posterior arm as the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm. Also superficial branch of radial nerve supplies back of the hand, including the web of skin between the thumb and index finger.
medial cord medial pectoral nerve C8, T1 pectoralis major and pectoralis minor -
medial cord medial root of the median nerve C8, T1 fibres to the median nerve portions of hand not served by ulnar or radial
medial cord medial cutaneous nerve of the arm C8, T1 - front and medial skin of the arm
medial cord medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm C8, T1 - medial skin of the forearm
medial cord ulnar nerve C8, T1 flexor carpi ulnaris, the medial two bellies of flexor digitorum profundus, the intrinsic hand muscles except the thenar muscles and the two most lateral lumbricals the skin of the medial side of the hand and medial one and a half fingers on the palmar side and medial two and a half fingers on the dorsal side

臂神经丛麻痹编辑

原因分为外傷、分娩麻痺、背包麻痹、睡眠中的压迫、肿瘤、肩膀关节脱臼、注射、手术等等。

參考文獻编辑

  1. Moore, K.L.; Agur, A.M. Essential Clinical Anatomy 3rd. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007: 430–1. ISBN 978-0-7817-6274-8. 

参见编辑