良心犯

良心犯(英語:Prisoner of conscience, POC),是彼得·本南森在1961年5月28日為《倫敦觀察家報》撰寫的文章(“被遺忘的囚犯”)中創造的一個術語。該詞常與人權組織國際特赦組織有關。與政治犯不相同。良心犯可以指因政治見解,性取向,族群,宗教而入獄的任何人,也可以指因非暴力表達其信念而被監禁或迫害的人。

良心犯受到《公民與政治權利國際公約》第18條及《歐洲人權公約》第9條關於思想、良心以及宗教自由的權利保護[1]

陳衛[2]當知項欠[3]艾爾西丁·伊斯萊爾(Ershidin Israil)、[4]高智晟[5]郭飛雄[6]郭小軍、[7]劉曉波[8]毛恒鳳[9]師濤[10]等人被國際特赦組織認為是良心犯。美國國會343號決議指引自由之家報導,稱中國監獄中一大部分群體是因政治入獄。[11]

國際條約保護编辑

思想、良心以及宗教自由的權利保護
  • 公民與政治權利國際公約》第18條:
    • 人人有權享受思想、良心和宗教自由。此項權利包括維持或改變他的宗教或信仰的自由,以及單獨或集體、公開或秘密地以禮拜、戒律、實踐和教義來表明他的宗教或信仰的自由。
    • 任何人不得遭受足以損害他維持或改變他的宗教或信仰的自由。
    • 表示自己的宗教或信仰的自由,僅只受法律所規定的以及為保障公共安全、秩序、衛生或道德、或他人的基本權利和自由所必須的限制。
  • 歐洲人權公約》第9條:

國際特赦組織良心犯名单编辑

按國家/地區分類的不完整名單

柬埔寨编辑

香港编辑

厄立特里亞编辑

衣索比亞编辑

岡比亞编辑

中國编辑

伊朗编辑

緬甸编辑

朝鮮编辑

巴基斯坦编辑

敘利亞编辑

Ali al-Abdullah;[42] Mazen Darwish;[43] Shibal Ibrahim;[44] Riad Seif[45]

烏茲別克编辑

Azam Farmonov;[38] Alisher Karamatov;[38] Solijon Abdrahmanov[46]

馬來西亞编辑

參看编辑

参考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Burma releases pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. BBC News. [2012-04-19]. (原始内容存档于2010-11-14). 
  2. ^ China sentences rights activist Chen Wei to nine years in jail. 
  3. ^ China: Tibetan film-maker may face unfair trial, Dhondup Wangchen. Amnesty International. 17 July 2009 [22 May 2011]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-07). 
  4. ^ Uighur teacher extradited to China on politically motivated 'terror' charges. Amnesty International. 15 June 2011 [27 December 2011]. 
  5. ^ Amnesty International 'Shocked' Following Reports of Chinese Human Rights Lawyer Gao Zhisheng's Return to Prison. Amnesty International. 16 December 2011. (原始内容存档于使用|archiveurl=需要含有|archivedate= (帮助)). 
  6. ^ Human rights defender at risk of torture (PDF). (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013年12月10日). 
  7. ^ Further Information on UA 257/10 (15 December 2010) - Prisoner of Conscience/ Risk of Torture (PDF). Amnesty International. 31 March 2011 [18 April 2011]. 
  8. ^ End Repression of Expression: Free Liu Xiaobo. Amnesty International. (原始内容存档使用|archiveurl=需要含有|archivedate= (帮助)). 
  9. ^ MAO HENGFENG: HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDER. Amnesty International. (原始内容存档于使用|archiveurl=需要含有|archivedate= (帮助)). 
  10. ^ LETTER TO YAHOO RAISING CONCERNS ABOUT THE COMPANY'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE ARREST AND CONVICTION OF CHINESE JOURNALIST SHI TAO. Amnesty International. 
  11. ^ H.Res.343 - Expressing concern regarding persistent and credible reports of systematic, state-sanctioned organ harvesting from non-consenting prisoners of conscience in the People's Republic of China, including from large numbers of Falun Gong practitioners and members of other religious and ethnic minority groups. 美国国会. [1 July 2016]. (原始内容存档于2016-11-22). 
  12. ^ Convictions of activists in Cambodia demonstrates dire state of justice. Amnesty International. 27 December 2012 [2 January 2013]. (原始内容存档于1 January 2013).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Hong Kong: "Vindictive" jail terms for pro-democracy leaders. Amnesty International. [18 August 2017]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Eritrea: Prisoners of conscience held for a decade must be released. Amnesty International. 15 September 2011 [26 December 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011-12-03). 
  15. ^ Annual Report 2011. Amnesty International. 2011 [28 May 2011]. 
  16. ^ Amnesty International. Eskinder Nega. [16 June 2013]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-03). 
  17. ^ Ebrima Manneh. Amnesty International. [17 April 2011]. (原始内容存档于29 April 2011).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  18. ^ Iran: Further Information: Three Iranian Journalists Sentenced. Amnesty International. 8 July 2010 [4 September 2012]. 
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Iran must release prisoner of conscience Zhila Bani-Yaghoub. Amnesty International. 3 September 2012 [4 September 2012]. (原始内容存档于10 September 2012).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  20. ^ Iran must immediately release prisoner of conscience Arzhang Davoodi. Amnesty International. 24 August 2012 [24 August 2012]. (原始内容存档于25 August 2012).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  21. ^ Archived copy. Amnesty International. [2 November 2014]. (原始内容存档于12 October 2014).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Urgent Action: Increasing concerns for safety of Goudarzi. Amnesty International. 30 September 2011 [1 January 2012]. 
  23. ^ Iran: female prisoner's conditions after 8 years behind bars - People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI/MEK). mojahedin.org. 
  24. ^ Iran: Free prisoner of conscience to visit ailing son. Amnesty International. 17 February 2012 [9 June 2012]. 
  25. ^ Urgent Action: Human rights activist sentenced (PDF). Amnesty International. 13 April 2012 [4 September 2012]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-06). 
  26. ^ Habibollah Latifi's Death Sentence Stopped By Leadership's Pardon. hra-news.org. 2 September 2015. 
  27. ^ Iran: Jailed Blogger Denied Medical Leave. Amnesty International. 17 May 2012 [2 June 2012]. 
  28. ^ Urgent Action: human rights Defender imprisoned. Amnesty International. 30 April 2012 [3 May 2012]. 
  29. ^ Prisoner at risk of torture and ill-treatment. Amnesty International. 14 September 2009 [21 October 2012]. 
  30. ^ Urgent Action: Prisoner taken from cell at risk of torture. Amnesty International. 11 March 2011 [7 January 2012]. 
  31. ^ Mansour Ossanlu, Prisoner of Conscience. Amnesty International. [18 April 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011-03-22). 
  32. ^ About the Prometheus Project. American Repertory Theater. 15 February 2011 [16 May 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011-10-07). 
  33. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben. Jafar Panahi asks for Golden Bear winner Taxi to be shown in Iran. the Guardian. 17 February 2015. 
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 Iran must release human rights defender Mohammad Ali Dadkhah. Amnesty International. 1 October 2012 [1 October 2012]. (原始内容存档于1 October 2012).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  35. ^ Trade Unionist Given Six-Year Prison Sentence. Amnesty International. 9 May 2012 [14 May 2012]. 
  36. ^ The Iranian - Iran News And Analysis. The Iranian. [3 September 2015]. (原始内容存档于5 September 2015).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  37. ^ Heshmatollah Tabarzadi (m), aged 53, journalist (PDF). Amnesty International. 6 April 2011 [18 April 2011]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2011-04-29). 
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 38.2 Prisoners of Conscience. Amnesty International. [18 April 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011-04-15). 
  39. ^ Phyoe Phyoe Aung, Myanmar. Amnesty International. [3 January 2016]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-06). 
  40. ^ 2.2. Shin Sook Ja and her daughters, North Korea: Summary of Amnesty International's concerns, Amnesty International, 1993 [8 May 2012], (原始内容存档于2013-01-12) 
  41. ^ Pakistan: Authorities must immediately and unconditionally release Junaid Hafeez, Amnesty International (25 September 2019).
  42. ^ Release Syrian prisoner of conscience 'Ali al-'Abdullah. Amnesty International. 4 February 2011 [26 December 2011]. 
  43. ^ Syrian Activist Faces Secret Military Court. Amnesty International. 10 August 2012 [17 August 2012]. 
  44. ^ Urgent Action- Health Concerns for Detained Syrian Activist - Shibal Ibrahim. Amnesty International. 24 January 2012 [28 January 2012]. 
  45. ^ Syria: activists forced into hiding by threats. Amnesty International. 6 May 2011 [7 May 2011]. (原始内容存档于3 September 2011).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  46. ^ US Urged to Press Tashkent on Political Prisoners. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. 21 August 2012 [31 August 2012]. (原始内容存档于16 April 2013).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助); 已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)

外部連結编辑