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莽原之役(Battle of Wilderness),爆發於1864年5月5日至7日。

Battle of the Wilderness
the American Civil War的一部分
Battle of the Wilderness.png
Battle of the Wilderness by Kurz and Allison
日期May 5–7, 1864[1]
地点38°18′59″N 77°45′35″W / 38.3164°N 77.7597°W / 38.3164; -77.7597坐标38°18′59″N 77°45′35″W / 38.3164°N 77.7597°W / 38.3164; -77.7597
结果

Indecisive

(Union offensive continued)[2]
参战方
 美國 Template:Country data Confederate States
指挥官与领导者
Ulysses S. Grant
George G. Meade
Robert E. Lee
参战单位
Army of Northern Virginia
兵力
124,232 ("present for duty")[5][6] 60–65,000[6]
伤亡与损失
17,666
(2,246 killed,
 12,037 wounded,
 3,383 captured/missing)[7][8]
11,033
(1,477 killed,
  7,866 wounded,
 1,690 captured/missing)[8]

戰前编辑

1864年5月3日,格蘭特麾下波多馬克軍團的十三萬大軍南下維吉尼亞州,追趕兵敗蓋茨堡北維吉尼亞軍團。格蘭特希望能夠長驅直入維吉尼亞的里奇蒙。大軍的右翼為高佛勒·華倫(Gouverneur Kemble Warren)以及約翰·塞吉威克(John Sedgwick)的兩個兵團;左翼則為溫菲爾德·漢考克的兵團和華倫的騎兵。

4日,大軍出發。不過,直到5日,當北軍的大軍渡過了波多馬克河時,軍人數目只是僅僅超過十萬。李將軍見到北軍此舉後,立即派軍攻擊其側翼,但不成功。

戰事编辑

華倫和塞吉威克進軍時遇上理查·尤爾的阻撓,華倫派出查爾斯·格里芬(Charles Griffin)和塞繆爾·克勞佛(Samuel Wylie Crawford)兩出擊,克勞佛被擊退,詹姆斯·瓦斯渥斯(James Samuel Wadsworth)少將加入,支援格里芬,終能扭轉局勢。然而,南軍的約翰·高登突擊北軍右翼,俘得1,000多人。

同時,南面的漢考克正攻擊A·P·希爾,希爾不久被擊退,但在李將軍的總部前死守,暫時擋住漢考克的追擊。次日,漢考克命40,000人再度攻擊希爾,成功逼南軍退後兩里,李將軍遂非常擔心,因為數小時前,隆史崔特就該到達。

中午,隆史崔特率20,000人趕來支援希爾,把疲憊不堪和亂成一團的北軍擊退,重奪失地,更在5月5日時南北雙方的陣線外一里,將漢考克的北軍一分為二。只是,20,000名南軍不足以繼續進一步打擊無法互助的北軍,而且隆史崔特這時身受重傷,此後數個月都不能上戰場。

戰後编辑

兩軍之間只有零星戰鬥,至8日,北軍始繼續南下。爆發史波特斯凡尼亞郡府之役

註釋编辑

  1. ^ NPS. There was no significant fighting on May 7 and some authors, such as Welcher, p. 941, use the dates May 5–6.
  2. ^ Battle Summary: Wilderness, VA. www.nps.gov. 
  3. ^ Further information:
    Organization of the forces operating against Richmond, on the morning of May 5, 1864: Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, pages 106-116.
  4. ^ This Army Corps was under direct orders of Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant until May 24, 1864, when it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac. See: Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, page 113 (note at the bottom of the page).
  5. ^ "Present for duty" (April 30, 1864): Army of the Potomac: 102,869; IX Army Corps: 21,363. See Abstract from tri-monthly return of the Army of the Potomac, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, U.S. Army commanding, April 30, 1864 (Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, page 198) and Abstract from return of the Ninth Army Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, U.S. Army, for April 30, 1864 (Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, page 915).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 101,895 Union, 61,025 Confederate according NPS; Rhea, p. 34, estimates 120,000 Union, 65,000 Confederate.
  7. ^ Return of Casualties in the Union forces, Battle of Wilderness, May 5–7, 1864 (Recapitulation): Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, page 133.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Young, p. 235. Although estimates of Union casualties are relatively consistent across sources, historians have presented significantly different figures for Confederate casualties. See the Aftermath section on casualties.

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