葉鬚蟲目

多毛纲的一目环节动物

葉鬚蟲目(學名:Phyllodocida)是多毛綱足刺亞綱之下一個[2]。這些物種主要在海洋生活,而有少量生活於鹹淡水交界處。本目物種大多數是活躍的底棲生物,在沉積物的表面上移動或在當中挖洞,又或居住在基岩的裂縫和縫隙中。當中有部分物種會建造棲管,又有部分是浮游生物。據估計,約有3500種物種[3]

葉鬚蟲目Infobox info icon2.svg
Tomopteriskils.jpg
浮游的多毛綱物種浮蠶屬Tomopteris
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 環節動物門 Annelida
纲: 多毛綱 Polychaeta
亚纲: 足刺亞綱 Errantia
目: 葉鬚蟲目 Phyllodocida
Dales英语Dales, 1962[1]
亞目

見內文

特徵编辑

葉鬚蟲目是有體節物種,身長從數毫米到超過一米不等。每個體節均有一對似的疣足口前葉一般有一對到兩對眼睛,背部有一對觸角,a ventral pair of sensory palps and a pair of organs on the neck. The peristomium is a ring, often hidden dorsally by the prostomium and the first segment. There is a muscular proboscis with one or more pairs of jaws. The next few segments tend to differ from those further back in having enlarged dorsal and ventral cirri (fine appendages) and reduced parapodial lobes and chaetae (bristles). Some species have appendages with specialised functions but most have many segments that are similar to each other but which vary in size and shape along the length of the body without abrupt changes in the chaetae and parapodia from one to the next.[3]

食性编辑

本目物種一般皆為捕食性動物腐食性動物[4]

支序分類關係编辑

本目的三個主要子群體為:鱗沙蠶亞目Aphroditiformia)、吻沙蠶亞目Glyceriformia)及沙蠶亞目Nereidiformia):

  • 鱗沙蠶亞目的特色為其物種每隔一個體節會長有質的背鱗elytraescales);
  • 吻沙蠶亞目的特色為其物種均有獨特的錐狀環形口前葉(prostomium);
  • 沙蠶亞目比較麻煩,因為牠們並沒有普遍可辨識的特徵。

There is agreement on the monophyly of a group including the Hesionidae, Nereididae and Chrysopetalidae families but opinions differ about Pilargidae, and molecular and morphological studies continue.[5][6][7]

分類编辑

葉鬚蟲目原為足刺目之下的一個亞目。後來足刺目升格成為足刺亞綱,其下的葉鬚蟲亞目亦升格成為葉鬚蟲目。以下為本目所包含的四個亞目及再之下的各個科[2][8]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Dales, R.P. The polychaete stomodeum and the inter-relationships of the families of Polychaeta.. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1962, 139 (3): 389–428 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Read, Geoffrey; Fauchald, Kristian. Phyllodocida. WoRMS. 2014-02-18 [2020-03-03]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Pleijel, Fredrik; Rouse, Greg W. Phyllodocida. The Tree of Life Web Project Version 13. 2004-04 [2020-03-03]. (原始内容存档于2011-05-15) (英语). 
  4. ^ 網絡生命大百科
  5. ^ Glasby, C.J. Family revision and cladistic analysis of the Nereidoidea (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida). Invertebr. Taxon. 1993, 7: 1551–1573 (英语). 
  6. ^ Pleijel, F.; Dahlgren, T.G. Position and delineation of Chrysopetalidae and Hesionidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Phyllodocida). Cladistics. 1998, 14: 129–150 (英语). 
  7. ^ Dahlgren, T.G.; Lundberg, J.; Pleijel, F.; Sundberg, P. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). J. zool. Syst. evol. Res. 2000, 38: 249–253 (英语). 
  8. ^ Phyllodocida. ITIS. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Kinberg, J.G.H. Nya slägten och arter af Annelider [環節動物新屬新種]. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhhandlingar (Stockholm): 381–388. [2022-11-06]. (原始内容存档于2022-11-06) (拉丁语及瑞典语).  已忽略未知参数|yearr= (帮助)
  10. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2013-12-19. Aphroditiformia. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  11. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2021-04-02. Pholoidae Kinberg, 1858. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  12. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2021-04-02. Pisionidae Ehlers, 1901. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  13. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2013-12-19. Glyceriformia. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  14. ^ 角沙蠶科 Goniadidae. 台灣生物多樣性網絡. 2021-01-30 [2022-11-06]. (原始内容存档于2022-11-06) (中文(繁體)). 
  15. ^ Nereidiformia |date=2004-12-21. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  16. ^ Read, Geoffrey; Fauchald, Kristian; Vanden Berghe, Edward. Nautiliniellidae Miura & Laubier, 1990. WoRMS. 2013-11-19 [2022-11-06]. 
  17. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2013-12-19. Phyllodociformia. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  18. ^ Read, Geoffrey |date=2020-06-27. Alciopidae Ehlers, 1864. WoRMS. [2022-11-06]. 
  19. ^ Read, Geoffrey; Vanden Berghe, Edward. Phyllodocida incertae sedis. WoRMS. 2014-03-13 [2022-11-06]. 
  20. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为zgdwz的参考文献提供内容

外部連結编辑