蒙古文 (Unicode区段)

统一码区段

蒙古文Unicode区段是包含胡都木蒙古文[註 1]托忒蒙古文满文锡伯文字符的Unicode区段[3]:528其书写方向为Writing Direction UDLR.svg 由上至下,並由左至右。在Unicode官方的字符表中该区段的字符被逆时针旋转90度显示[3]:529[4]

蒙古文
Mongolian
范围U+1800–U+18AF
(176個碼位)
平面基本多文種平面BMP
字符蒙古文(153个字符)
通用(3个字符)
应用蒙古文(胡都木托忒
满文
锡伯文
分配158个码位
未分配18个保留码位
Unicode版本歷史
3.0155 (+155)
5.1156 (+1)
11.0157 (+1)
14.0158 (+1)
注:[1][2]

胡都木蒙古文和满文[註 2]使用的字符中包括一些用于翻译佛教经文的阿礼嘎礼字母[3]:528

Unicode标准中为该区段的字符定义了数十个变体序列,用以在无法通过算法自动判断时指定具体应显示的变体形式英语Variant form (Unicode)[5]

区段内容编辑

本区段中发音不同但书写形状相同的字母被看作不同的字母,具有不同的码位。例如胡都木蒙古文字母O编码为U+1823,U编码为U+1824,但表现出的形状是一样的。[3]:530

蒙古文
Mongolian[1][2]
Unicode 联盟官方码表(PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
FV
 S4 
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
注释
1.^ 依据 Unicode 14.0
2.^ 灰色区域指示未被分配的码点

变体形式编辑

本区段的同一个字符可能有多个变体,Unicode使用自由变体选择符(FVS,Free Variant Selector)来选择不同变体。FVS有3个,分别是FVS1(U+180B)、FVS2(U+180C)、FVS3(U+180D)。在特定字符的后面加上FVS能够改变字符的形态,这样的字符+FVS的组合称为标准变体(standardized variant)。[3]:532[6]:33,34全部的标准变体见下表。[7]

元音
字母 变体 Unicode 独立形式 字首形式 字中形式 字尾形式
A
a
基本 1820 ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ
1820 180B ᠠ᠋ ‍ᠠ᠋‍ ‍ᠠ᠋
1820 180C ‍ᠠ᠌‍
E
e
基本 1821 ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ
1821 180B ᠡ᠋‍ ‍ᠡ᠋
托忒 1844 ᡄ‍ ‍ᡄ‍ ‍ᡄ
1844 180B ‍ᡄ᠋‍
锡伯文 185D ᡝ‍ ‍ᡝ‍ ‍ᡝ
185D 180B ‍ᡝ᠋‍ ‍ᡝ᠋
EE
é
基本 1827 ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ
I
i
基本 1822 ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ
1822 180B ‍ᠢ᠋‍
托忒 1845 ᡅ‍ ‍ᡅ‍ ‍ᡅ
1825 180B ‍ᡅ᠋‍
锡伯文 185E ᡞ‍ ‍ᡞ‍ ‍ᡞ
185E 180B ‍ᡞ᠋‍ ‍ᡞ᠋
185E 180C ‍ᡞ᠌‍ ‍ᡞ᠌
满文 1873 ᡳ‍ ‍ᡳ‍ ‍ᡳ
1873 180B ‍ᡳ᠋‍ ‍ᡳ᠋
1873 180C ‍ᡳ᠌‍ ‍ᡳ᠌
1873 180D ‍ᡳ᠍‍
IY 锡伯文 185F ᡟ‍ ‍ᡟ‍ ‍ᡟ
O
o
基本 1823 ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ
1823 180B ‍ᠣ᠋‍ ‍ᠣ᠋
托忒 1846 ᡆ‍ ‍ᡆ‍ ‍ᡆ
1846 180B ‍ᡆ᠋‍
OE
ö
基本 1825 ᠥ‍ ‍ᠥ‍ ‍ᠥ
1825 180B ‍ᠥ᠋‍ ‍ᠥ᠋
1825 180C ‍ᠥ᠌‍
托忒 1848 ᡈ‍ ‍ᡈ‍ ‍ᡈ
1848 180B ‍ᡈ᠋‍
U
u
基本 1824 ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ
1824 180B ‍ᠤ᠋‍
托忒 1847 ᡇ‍ ‍ᡇ‍ ‍ᡇ
1847 180B ᡇ᠋ ‍ᡇ᠋‍ ‍ᡇ᠋
1847 180C ‍ᡇ᠌‍
锡伯文 1861 ᡡ‍ ‍ᡡ‍ ‍ᡡ
UE
ü
基本 1826 ᠦ‍ ‍ᠦ‍ ‍ᠦ
1826 180B ᠦ᠋ ‍ᠦ᠋‍ ‍ᠦ᠋
1826 180C ‍ᠦ᠌‍
托忒 1849 ᡉ‍ ‍ᡉ‍ ‍ᡉ
1849 180B ᡉ᠋ ‍ᡉ᠋‍
锡伯文 1860 ᡠ‍ ‍ᡠ‍ ‍ᡠ
1860 180B ‍ᡠ᠋‍ ‍ᡠ᠋
辅音
字母 变体 Unicode 独立形式 字首形式 字中形式 字尾形式
N
n
基本 1828 ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ
1828 180B ᠨ᠋‍ ‍ᠨ᠋‍
1828 180C ‍ᠨ᠌‍ ‍ᠨ᠌
NG
ŋ
基本 1829 ᠩ‍ ‍ᠩ‍ ‍ᠩ
托忒 184A 180B ᡊ‍ ‍ᡊ‍ ‍ᡊ
锡伯文 1862 180B ᡢ‍ ‍ᡢ‍ ‍ᡢ
B
b
基本 182A ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ
182A 180B ‍ᠪ
托忒 184B ᡋ‍ ‍ᡋ‍ ‍ᡋ
P
p
基本 182B ᠫ‍ ‍ᠫ‍ ‍ᠫ
托忒 184C ᡌ‍ ‍ᡌ‍ ‍ᡌ
锡伯文 1866 ᡦ‍ ‍ᡦ‍ ‍ᡦ
Q
q/k
基本 182C ᠬ‍ ‍ᠬ‍ ‍ᠬ
182C 180B ᠬ᠋ ᠬ᠋‍ ‍ᠬ᠋‍ ‍ᠬ᠋
182C 180C ‍ᠬ᠌‍
182C 180D ‍ᠬ᠍‍
托忒 184D ᡍ‍ ‍ᡍ‍ ‍ᡍ
184D 180B ᡍ᠋‍ ‍ᡍ᠋‍
G
ү/g
基本 182D ᠭ‍ ‍ᠭ‍ ‍ᠭ
182D 180B ᠭ᠋ ᠭ᠋‍ ‍ᠭ᠋‍ ‍ᠭ᠋
182D 180C ‍ᠭ᠌‍ ‍ᠭ᠌
182D 180D ‍ᠭ᠍‍
托忒 184E ᡎ‍ ‍ᡎ‍ ‍ᡎ
184E 180B ‍ᡎ᠋‍
锡伯文 1864 ᡤ‍ ‍ᡤ‍ ‍ᡤ
M
m
基本 182E ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ
托忒 184F ᡏ‍ ‍ᡏ‍ ‍ᡏ
L
l
基本 182F ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ
S
s
基本 1830 ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ
1830 180B ‍ᠰ᠋
1830 180C ‍ᠰ᠌
SH
š
基本 1831 ᠱ‍ ‍ᠱ‍ ‍ᠱ
锡伯文 1867 ᡧ‍ ‍ᡧ‍ ‍ᡧ
T
t
基本 1832 ᠲ‍ ‍ᠲ‍ ‍ᠲ
1832 180B ‍ᠲ᠋‍
托忒 1850 ᡐ‍ ‍ᡐ‍ ‍ᡐ
锡伯文 1868 ᡨ‍ ‍ᡨ‍ ‍ᡨ
1868 180B ᡨ᠋‍ ‍ᠲ᠋‍
1832 180C ‍ᡨ᠌‍
D
d
基本 1833 ᠳ‍ ‍ᠳ‍ ‍ᠳ
1832 180B ᠳ᠋‍ ‍ᠳ᠋‍ ‍ᠳ᠋
托忒 1851 ᡑ‍ ‍ᡑ‍ ‍ᡑ
锡伯文 1869 ᡩ‍ ‍ᡩ‍ ‍ᡩ
1869 180B ᡩ᠋‍ ‍ᡩ᠋‍
CH
č
基本 1834 ᠴ‍ ‍ᠴ‍ ‍ᠴ
托忒 1852 ᡒ‍ ‍ᡒ‍ ‍ᡒ
锡伯文 1871 ᡱ‍ ‍ᡱ‍ ‍ᡱ
J
ǰ
基本 1835 ᠵ‍ ‍ᠵ‍ ‍ᠵ
1835 180B ‍ᠵ᠋‍
托忒 1853 ᡓ‍ ‍ᡓ‍ ‍ᡓ
锡伯文 186A ᡪ‍ ‍ᡪ‍ ‍ᡪ
Y
y
基本 1836 ᠶ‍ ‍ᠶ‍ ‍ᠶ
1836 180B ᠶ᠋‍ ‍ᠶ᠋‍
1836 180C ‍ᠶ᠌‍
托忒 1855 ᡕ‍ ‍ᡕ‍ ‍ᡕ
R
r
基本 1837 ᠷ‍ ‍ᠷ‍ ‍ᠷ
满文 1875 ᡵ‍ ‍ᡵ‍ ‍ᡵ
RA 锡伯文 1870 ᡰ‍ ‍ᡰ‍ ‍ᡰ
W
v
基本 1838 ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ
1838 180B ‍ᠸ᠋‍ ‍ᠸ᠋
托忒 1856 ᡖ‍ ‍ᡖ‍ ‍ᡖ
F
f
基本 1839 ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ
锡伯文 186B ᡫ‍ ‍ᡫ‍ ‍ᡫ
满文 1876 ᡶ‍ ‍ᡶ‍ ‍ᡶ
1876 180B ᡶ᠋‍ ‍ᡶ᠋‍
K 基本 183A ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ
托忒 1857 ᡗ‍ ‍ᡗ‍ ‍ᡗ
锡伯文 1863 ᡣ‍ ‍ᡣ‍ ‍ᡣ
1863 180B ‍ᡣ᠋‍
满文 1874 ᡴ‍ ‍ᡴ‍ ‍ᡴ
1874 180B ‍ᡴ᠋‍ ‍ᡴ᠋
1874 180C ‍ᡴ᠌‍ ‍ᡴ᠌
1874 180D ‍ᡴ᠍‍
KH
基本 183B ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ
GA 托忒 1858 ᡘ‍ ‍ᡘ‍ ‍ᡘ
锡伯文 186C ᡬ‍ ‍ᡬ‍ ‍ᡬ
TS
c
基本 183C ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ
托忒 1854 ᡔ‍ ‍ᡔ‍ ‍ᡔ
锡伯文 186E ᡮ‍ ‍ᡮ‍ ‍ᡮ
Z
z
基本 183D ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ
锡伯文 186F ᡯ‍ ‍ᡯ‍ ‍ᡯ
186F 180B ᡯ᠋‍ ‍ᡯ᠋‍
HA
h
基本 183E ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ
托忒 1859 ᡙ‍ ‍ᡙ‍ ‍ᡙ
锡伯文 186D ᡭ‍ ‍ᡭ‍ ‍ᡭ
ZR
ž/ř
基本 183F ᠿ‍ ‍ᠿ‍ ‍ᠿ
ZH 锡伯文 1872 ᡲ‍ ‍ᡲ‍ ‍ᡲ
满文 1877 ᡷ‍ ‍ᡷ‍ ‍ᡷ
LH
lh
基本 1840 ᡀ‍ ‍ᡀ‍ ‍ᡀ
ZHI
zh
基本 1841 ᡁ‍ ‍ᡁ‍ ‍ᡁ
CHI
ch
基本 1842 ᡂ‍ ‍ᡂ‍ ‍ᡂ
JI 托忒 185A ᡚ‍ ‍ᡚ‍ ‍ᡚ
NI 托忒 185B ᡛ‍ ‍ᡛ‍ ‍ᡛ
DZ 托忒 185C ᡜ‍ ‍ᡜ‍ ‍ᡜ

历史编辑

以下文件记录了此区段的建立目的与各字符的定义过程。

版本 码位[a] 码点数量 L2英语International Committee for Information Technology Standards ID WG2英语ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 ID 文件
3.0 U+1800..180E, 1810..1819, 1820..1877, 1880..18A9 155 X3L2/93-066 N836 Whistler, Ken, Proposal for disposition of Chinese Comments on Mongolian characters in DIS 1.2, 1992-06-27 
X3L2/94-086 N1011 A proposal about installing Mongolian, Todo, Xibe (Manchu included) scripts into ISO/IEC 10646 BMP, 1994-04-18 
X3L2/95-133 Correspondence from the National Body of Mongolia regarding Coded character set for the Mongolian Script, 1995-10-23 
X3L2/96-054 N1368 Mongolian script proposal, 1996-04-10 
X3L2/96-055 N1383 Ad hoc report on Mongolian script - Copenhagen meeting, 1996-04-25 
X3L2/96-102 N1437 Report of 3rd international Mongolian encoding meeting, 1996-08-06 
X3L2/96-103 N1438 Draft on encoding Mongolian character set, 1996-08-08 
X3L2/96-113 Gang, Mao Yong, About the function of identifiers of Mongolian Proposal, 1996-11-10 
L2/97-028 N1497 Moore, Richard; 等, On the Use of Control Symbols in the Mongolian Script Encoding, 1997-01-10 
L2/97-035 N1515 Moore, Richard; 等, Report of the ad-hoc group on Mongolian encoding, 1997-01-23 
L2/97-152 N1607 Mongolian proposal review, 1997-06-20 
L2/97-165 N1622 Corff, Oliver, Comments on Technical Issues of Mongolian in N 1515 and N1607, 1997-07-03 
L2/98-088 N1711 The Working Meeting on Mongolian Encoding Attended by Representatives of China and Mongolia, 1998-02-15 
L2/98-104 N1734 Whistler, Ken, Comments on the Mongolian Encoding Proposal, WG2 N1711, 1998-03-20 
L2/98-252 N1833 Moore, Richard, Feedback on Ken Whistler's Comments on Mongolian Encoding: N 1734, 1998-05-04 
L2/98-251 N1808 Reply to "Proposal WG2 N1734" Raised at the Seattle Meeting Regarding "Proposal WG 2 N1711", 1998-07-09 
L2/98-272 Choijingzhab, Mongolian: China's comments to Richard Moore's feedback in L2/98-252, 1998-07-26 
L2/98-268R Whistler, Ken, Analysis and UTC Position Regarding Mongolian Encoding Issues, 1998-07-30 
L2/98-369 N1878 Report of the meetings of the ad-hoc group on Mongolian; London; 21/22 September, 1998, 1998-09-23 
L2/98-326 Subdivision Proposal on JTC 1.02.18.01 for Amendment 29: Mongolian to ISO/IEC 10646-1, 1998-10-28 
L2/98-327 Combined PDAM registration and consideration ballot on WD for ISO/IEC 10646-1/Amd. 29, AMENDMENT 29: Mongolian, 1998-10-28 
L2/98-389R Aliprand, Joan, RESOLUTION M35.11, Consent docket re WG2 Resolutions at its Meeting #35 
L2/99-075.1 N1973 Irish Comments on SC 2 N 3208, 1999-01-19 
L2/99-074 Summary of Voting on SC 2 N 3207, Subdivision Proposal on JTC 1.02.18.01 for Amendment 29: Mongolian, 1999-02-12 
L2/99-075 N1972 Summary of Voting on SC 2 N 3208, PDAM ballot on WD for ISO/IEC 10646-1/Amd. 29: Mongolian, 1999-02-12 
L2/99-113 Text for FPDAM ballot of ISO/IEC 10646, Amd. 29 - Mongolian, 1999-04-06 
L2/99-254 N2068 Summary of Voting on SC 2 N 3308, ISO 10646-1/FPDAM 29 - Mongolian, 1999-08-19 
L2/99-303 N2125 Disposition of Comments Report on SC 2 N 3308, ISO/IEC 10646-1/FPDAM 29 AMD. 29: Mongolian, 1999-09-20 
L2/99-304 N2126 Paterson, Bruce, Revised Text for FDAM ballot of ISO/IEC 10646-1/FDAM 29, AMENDMENT 29: Mongolian, 1999-10-01 
L2/99-381 Final text for ISO/IEC 10646-1, FDAM 29 -- Mongolian, 1999-12-07 
L2/00-046 Summary of FDAM voting: ISO 10646 Amendment 29: Mongolian, 2000-02-15 
L2/03-065 Nelson, Paul; Freytag, Asmus, Use of ZWJ/ZWNJ with Mongolian Variant Selectors and Vowel Separator, 2003-02-13 
L2/03-073 Partridge, Tim, Error Report on Linebreaking of Mongolian Vowel Separator, 2003-02-27 
L2/03-039R Moore, Lisa, Properties - Mongolian Vowel Separator, UTC #94 Minutes, 2003-03-14 
L2/05-378 Muller, Eric, Proposal to change the script property for three Mongolian punctuation marks, 2005-12-05 
L2/10-279 Batjargal, Biligsaikhan; 等, Mongolian Script Rendering Issues, 2010-07-30 
L2/11-401 Iancu, Laurențiu, Proposal to assign the Extender property to U+180A MONGOLIAN NIRUGU, 2011-10-19 
L2/12-202 Esfahbod, Behdad, Proposal to Add Mongolian Letters to ArabicShaping.txt, 2012-06-01 
L2/12-360 Esfahbod, Behdad; Pournader, Roozbeh, Mongolian and 'Phags-Pa Shaping, 2012-11-05 
L2/12-343R2 Moore, Lisa, Properties — Mongolian Shaping, UTC #133 Minutes, 2012-12-04 
L2/13-004 Esfahbod, Behdad, Proposal to change General Category of MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR from Zs to Cf, 2012-12-20 
L2/13-011 Moore, Lisa, Properties — MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR, UTC #134 Minutes, 2013-02-04 
L2/13-146 N4435 Suignard, Michel, Presentation of vertical scripts, 2013-05-27 
L2/14-031 Bell, Aaron; Eck, Greg; Glass, Andrew, Proposal to update the code charts for Mongolian, 2014-01-20 
L2/15-304 Suignard, Michel, Draft Mongolian variation selectors, 2015-08-27 
L2/16-041R Eck, Greg, Mongolian discussion documents, 2016-01-26 
L2/16-004 Moore, Lisa, C.13 Mongolian discussion documents, UTC #146 Minutes, 2016-02-01 
L2/16-258 Eck, Greg, Mongolian Base Forms, Positional Forms, & Variant Forms, 2016-09-19 
L2/16-259 N4753 Eck, Greg; Rileke, Orlog Ou, WG2 #65 Mongolian Discussion Points, 2016-09-20 
L2/16-266 Anderson, Deborah; Whistler, Ken; McGowan, Rick; Pournader, Roozbeh; Glass, Andrew; Iancu, Laurențiu; Moore, Lisa, 1. Mongolian, Comments on Mongolian, Small Khitan, and other WG2 #65 documents, 2016-09-26 
L2/16-297 N4769 Anderson, Deborah, Mongolian ad hoc report, 2016-10-27 
L2/16-342 Anderson, Deborah; Whistler, Ken; Pournader, Roozbeh; Glass, Andrew; Iancu, Laurențiu, 11. Mongolian, Recommendations to UTC #149 November 2016 on Script Proposals, 2016-11-07 
L2/16-325 Moore, Lisa, C.5.4, UTC #149 Minutes, 2016-11-18 
5.1 U+18AA 1 L2/06-013 N3041 West, Andrew, Proposal to encode one Manchu ali gali letter, 2006-01-23 
L2/06-285 N3092 Supporting references for WG2 N3041, Manchu Ali Gali, 2006-03-27 
  1. ^ 提案中的字符码位与最终定稿的字符码位可能不同。

参见编辑

注释编辑

  1. ^ Unicode标准中,将胡都木蒙古文称为“Mongolian”,将托忒蒙古文称为“Todo”。
  2. ^ 满文中的阿礼嘎礼字母请参看满文#转写梵文藏文字母

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Unicode character database. The Unicode Standard. [2018-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2018-03-19). 
  2. ^ Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard. The Unicode Standard. [2018-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-25). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 – Core Specification (PDF). The Unicode Consortium. [2018-01-30]. 
  4. ^ Mongolian code chart (PDF). The Unicode Consortium. [2018-01-30]. 
  5. ^ Unicode Character Database: Standardized Variation Sequences. The Unicode Consortium. [2018-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-22). 
  6. ^ Biligsaikhan Batjargal; Garmaabazar Khaltarkhuu; Fuminori Kimura; Akira Maeda. A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts (PDF). International Journal on Asian Language Processing (中文与东方语文信息处理学会). 2011, 21(1). 
  7. ^ 满文转写. 太清网. (原始内容存档于2017-07-13).