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西班牙征服阿兹特克帝国

西班牙征服阿兹特克帝国,又称西班牙-阿兹特克战争(1519-1521),是西班牙殖民美洲的过程中最重要的战役之一。这一场战役之后西班牙殖民者成功镇压了阿兹特克人,并占领了今日墨西哥中部地区,但并未征服整个现代墨西哥地区。

西班牙征服阿兹特克帝国
西班牙美洲殖民化墨西哥印第安人战争英语Mexican Indian Wars的一部分
The Conquest of Tenochtitlan.jpg
日期1519年2月-1521年8月:征服阿兹特克帝国
1522年-1530年2月17日征服塔拉斯坎王国
地点
阿兹特克帝国与其他城邦(位于今日的墨西哥
结果 西班牙殖民者与当地联盟获胜
领土变更

阿兹特克帝国塔拉斯坎王国与其他城邦被西班牙帝国吞并

参战方

西班牙 西班牙帝国
TlaxcalaGlyph.jpg 特拉斯卡拉聯邦
Escudo de armas de Zempoala.gif 坎波拉

同盟:

Aztec Triple Alliance.png 阿兹特克帝国 (1519–1521)

联盟城邦:

独立城邦:

指挥官与领导者
西班牙 埃爾南·科爾特斯
西班牙 佩德羅·德·阿爾瓦拉多
西班牙 Gonzalo de Sandoval英语Gonzalo de Sandoval
西班牙 Cristóbal de Olid英语Cristóbal de Olid
西班牙 Nuño de Guzmán英语Nuño de Guzmán
TlaxcalaGlyph.jpg Xicotencatl the Younger英语Xicotencatl the Younger 
TlaxcalaGlyph.jpg Xicotencatl the Elder英语Xicotencatl the Elder
TlaxcalaGlyph.jpg Maxixcatl英语Maxixcatl
Escudo de armas de Zempoala.gif Xicomecoatl

Tenochtitlan Glyph ZP.svg 蒙特蘇馬二世 
Tenochtitlan Glyph ZP.svg 奎特拉瓦克 
Tenochtitlan Glyph ZP.svg 夸乌特莫克 處決
Tetzcoco glyph.svg Cacamatzin英语Cacamatzin 
Tetzcoco glyph.svg Coanacochtzin英语Coanacochtzin 處決
 Tlacopan glyph.svg Tetlepanquetzal英语Tetlepanquetzal 處決
Tlatelolco glyph.svg 伊兹夸赫特辛 


Glifo Michhuahcān.png 坦加苏安二世 處決
兵力

西班牙 西班牙殖民者 (总计):

TlaxcalaGlyph.jpg 特拉斯卡拉聯邦与其他联盟: ~80,000–200,000
Escudo de armas de Zempoala.gif 坎波拉: 400

Aztec Triple Alliance.png 阿兹特克帝国: 300,000


Glifo Michhuahcān.png 塔拉斯坎王国: 100,000
伤亡与损失

西班牙 1,800名士兵牺牲[2]

  • 1,000在战役中牺牲[3]
  • 损失15+加农炮[4][5]
无数特拉斯卡拉人与原住民被害[來源請求]
200,000名死者[3]
300艘战船沉没[3]

自从哥伦布发现美洲大陆、并在那里建立了数个殖民据点之后,在西班牙王室的授权下,殖民者以殖民据点为根据地,四处派出远征队,发现、征服并且殖民新领地。1519年2月,西班牙殖民者在埃尔南·科尔特斯的率领下从墨西哥湾登陆,向阿兹特克前进,在此之前,科尔特斯没有任何军事经验。阿兹特克人却将他们请进了首都特諾奇蒂特蘭。但西班牙人却软禁了皇帝蒙特祖马二世,向阿兹特克人勒索黄金。科尔特斯随后被愤怒的阿兹特克人击败,被迫逃亡到与阿兹特克敌对的国家特拉斯卡拉寻求庇护。一年之后,在特拉斯卡拉、森波阿拉等与阿兹特克敌对国家的帮助下,科尔特斯再次攻打阿兹特克,在1521年8月13日以沉重地代价攻陷了特诺奇提特兰,将其夷为平地,改建为墨西哥城。

相关条目编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Thomas, Hugh.Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), 528-529.
  2. ^ Thomas, Hugh.Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), 528-529.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Clodfelter 2017, p. 32.
  4. ^ Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0140441239: states that Cortes's men lost all the artillery they had initially arrived with during La Noche Triste.
  5. ^ Bernard Grunberg, "La folle aventure d'Hernan Cortés", in L'Histoire n°322, July–August 2007: states that Cortes arrived in Mexico with 15 cannons, before acquiring the forces of Pánfilo de Narváez.

扩展阅读编辑

一手资料编辑

  • Alva Ixtlilxochitil, Fernando英语Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl. Ally of Cortés: Account 13 of the Coming of the Spaniards and the Beginning of the Evangelical Law. Douglass K. Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press 1969. ISBN 978-0874-04015-9
  • Anonymous Conqueror, the. Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan英语Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan. Marshall Saville (trans). New York: The Cortés Society. 1917 [1550]. 
  • Codex Azcatitlan英语Codex Azcatitlan, Introduction de Michel Graulich, commentaire de Robert H. Barlow英语Robert H. Barlow mis à jour par Michel Graulich [comment by Robert h. Barlow put updated by Michel Graulich] Bibliothèque nationale de France-Société des Américanistes, Paris, 1995. (法文) ISBN 978-2717-71944-4
  • Cortés, Hernán. Letters – available as Letters from Mexico translated by Anthony Pagden英语Anthony Pagden (1986) ISBN 0-300-09094-3
  • de Fuentes, Patricia, ed. The Conquistadors: First-Person Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1993. Previously published by Orion Press 1963. ISBN 978-0806-12562-6
  • 貝爾納爾·迪亞斯·德爾·卡斯蒂略, The Conquest of New Spain – available as The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico: 1517–1521 ISBN 0-306-81319-X
  • Durán, Diego英语Diego Durán. The History of the Indies of New Spain (1581). Translated and edited by Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1994. ISBN 978-0806-14107-7
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.). The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Ángel María Garibay K.英语Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans.), Lysander Kemp (Spanish-English trans.), Alberto Beltran (illus.) Expanded and updated. Boston: Beacon Press. 1992 [1959]. ISBN 0-8070-5501-8.  (textbook, anthology)
  • Lockhart, James英语James Lockhart (historian). We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1991. (anthology) ISBN 978-1592-44681-0
  • 弗朗西斯科·洛佩斯·哥马拉. Cortés: The Life of the Conqueror by His Secretary, Translated by Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press 1964. ISBN 978-0520-00491-7
  • 弗朗西斯科·洛佩斯·哥马拉, Hispania Victrix; First and Second Parts of the General History of the Indies, with the whole discovery and notable things that have happened since they were acquired until the year 1551, with the conquest of Mexico and New Spain
  • 贝尔纳迪诺·德萨阿贡. General History of the Things of New Spain (The 佛罗伦萨手抄本). Book 12. Arthur J.O. Anderson and Charles Dibble, translators. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-1607-81167-1
  • 贝尔纳迪诺·德萨阿贡. The Conquest of New Spain, 1585 Revision. Trans. by Howard F. Cline英语Howard F. Cline, introduction and notes by S.L. Cline. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press 1989.ISBN 978-0874-80311-2
  • Schwartz, Stuart B.英语Stuart B. Schwartz, ed. Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Bedford, 2000. (textbook, anthology) ISBN 978-0312-39355-7
  • Siepel, Kevin H. Conquistador Voices: The Spanish Conquest of the Americas as recounted largely by the Participants. vol. 1. Spruce Tree Press 2015. (textbook, anthology) ISBN 978-0978-64662-2
  • Solis, Antonio de英语Antonio de Solis. The History of the Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards (1753). Trans. Thomas Townsend. 2 vols. New York: AMS Press 1973. ISBN 978-1385-12366-9
  • Solis, Antonio de英语Antonio de Solis. Historia de la conquista de Méjico. Reprint, Forgotten Books 2018. ISBN 978-0265-70774-6
  • Vázquez de Tapia, Bernardino. Relación de méritos y servicios del conquistador. (c. 1545). Mexico: UNAM 1972.

二手资料编辑

传记编辑

  • Brandt, Anthony. "Perfect storm at Tenochtitlan 1521: How Cortes's band of hidalgos destroyed the Mexica Empire." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (2014): 58.
  • Daniel, Douglas A. "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs." Anthropological Quarterly英语Anthropological Quarterly (1992): 187–94.
  • Raudzens, George. "So Why Were the Aztecs Conquered, and What Were the Wider Implications? Testing Military Superiority as a Cause of Europe's Pre-Industrial Colonial Conquests." War in History (1995): 87–104.
  • Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
  • White, John Manchip. "Cortes and the Downfall of the Aztec Empire: A Study in a Conflict of Cultures." The Hispanic American Historical Review英语The Hispanic American Historical Review (1972): 467–68.

外部链接编辑