解放了的普罗米修斯

解放了的普羅米修斯》(英語:Prometheus Unbound)是珀西·雪萊創作的一部四幕詩劇,1820年首版[1]。它本質上是一部书斋剧,並不是為了在劇院上演而創作的[2]

主人公即希臘神話中因盜天火而遭到宙斯懲罰的普羅米修斯,其靈感來自埃斯库罗斯創作的同名三部劇。和原作一樣,普羅米修斯最終都得以脫困,但雪萊的作品中,普羅米修斯並沒有和懲罰他的神和解,神的墮落才是他脫困的原因。

創作過程编辑

 
约瑟夫·塞文在1845年繪製的《雪萊寫作解放了的普羅米修斯》(Posthumous Portrait of Shelley Writing Prometheus Unbound)

瑪麗·雪萊在1818年9月5日的一份信首次提到珀西·雪萊在創作這部作品[3],而雪萊則在同年10月8日於寫給托马斯·拉夫·皮科克的一份信中首次提到了這部作品,說他已經完成了其第一幕的創作。[4]

但是由於雪萊的女兒克拉拉(Clara Everina Shelley)在1818年9月24日去世,雪萊前往意大利散心,期間《解放了的普羅米修斯》可能並沒有什麼太大的進展[5]。它的完成時間大概是1819年4月,在4月6日寫給皮科克的信中,雪萊說:“我的解放了的普羅米修斯剛剛完成,我會在一到兩個月內寄過去”[6]。但由於他的兒子威廉·雪萊在1819年6月7日去世,作品的發表日期再次推遲。[5]

1819年9月6日,雪萊寫信給查爾斯和詹姆斯·奧利爾說他將把作品寄給他們出版[7]。雪萊托約翰·吉斯伯恩(John Gisborne)將他的作品帶回英格蘭,但是由於吉斯伯恩行程延誤,直到1819年12月出版方才收到《解放了的普羅米修斯》的前三幕[8]。第四幕在此時尚未完成。1819年12月23日,雪萊給吉斯伯恩的信中才說他又寫成了額外的一幕。[9]

作品最終在1820年出版,雪萊夫婦則在當年11月收到了出版的《解放了的普羅米修斯》。[10]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Prometheus Unbound, A Lyrical Drama in Four Acts with Other Poems 1. London: C and J Ollier. 1820 [21 May 2015]. 
  2. ^ Mulhallen, Jacqueline. "The Theatre of Shelley". Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2010, pp. 147–76.
  3. ^ Zillman 1959 p. 3
  4. ^ Shelley 1930 IX . 336
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Zillman 1959 p. 4
  6. ^ Shelley 1930 X p. 48. "My Prometheus Unbound is just finished, and in a month or two I shall send it"
  7. ^ Shelley 1930 X p. 79
  8. ^ Zillman p. 5
  9. ^ Shelley 1930 X p. 136
  10. ^ Zillman pp. 6–7
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  • Rajan, Tilottama. "Deconstruction or Reconstruction: Reading Shelley's Prometheus Unbound." Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 23, No. 3, Percy Bysshe Shelley (Fall, 1984), pp. 317–338.
  • Ross, Marlon B. "Shelley's Wayward Dream-Poem: The Apprehending Reader in Prometheus Unbound." Keats-Shelley Journal, Vol. 36, (1987), pp. 110–133.
  • Rossetti, William Michael, ed. The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Revised, with notes, and a memoir. London: E. Moxon, Son, & Company, 1870.
  • Shelley, Percy. Prometheus Unbound. London: C and J Ollier, 1820.
  • Shelley, Percy. Complete Works (Julian Edition). Edited by Roger Ingpen and Walter Peck. London: Benn, 1930.
  • Smith, Wiltrude L. "An Overlooked Source for Prometheus Unbound." Studies in Philology, XLVIII (1951), 783–792.
  • Solve, Melvin Theodor. Shelley: His Theory of Poetry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927. (Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, 1976).
  • Sperry, Stuart M. "Necessity and the Role of the Hero in Shelley's Prometheus Unbound." PMLA, Vol. 96, No. 2 (March 1981), pp. 242–254.
  • Twitchell, James B. "Shelley's Metapsychological System in Act IV of 'Prometheus Unbound'." Keats-Shelley Journal, Vol. 24, (1975), pp. 29–48.
  • Wasserman, Earl. Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965
  • Waldoff, Leon. (1975). "The Father-Son Conflict in Prometheus Unbound: The Psychology of a Vision." Psychoanalytical Review, 62:79–96.
  • Zillman, Lawrence. Shelley's Prometheus Unbound. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1959.

外部連接编辑