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古羅馬宗教罗马神话中,赫丘利是一位英雄的神化,並納入羅馬的建國神話裡面,之後羅馬人將希腊神话中的海克力斯形象融入赫丘利,改編成自己的文學和藝術,但英雄相對具有羅馬文化的特性。早在公元前6世紀和5世紀,一些希臘的資料源頭表示一些海克利斯的故事如海克利斯的十二項功績英语Labours of Hercules和羅馬是有所關聯的。[1]

赫丘利
Hercules
Pieter paul rubens, ercole e i leone nemeo, 02.JPG
配偶 朱文塔斯
父母 朱庇特阿爾克墨涅
希臘
同位體
赫拉克勒斯

哈利卡納蘇斯的狄奧尼修斯將赫丘利歸為羅馬榮譽的神之中:「他的靈魂死後必然離開身體,他已經升天並已獲得等價的榮譽之神。」[2]他的神化概念是由於其英雄形象而做為一個神化羅馬國王的象徵。[3]

柯摩达扮成赫丘利的雕像

故事编辑

暴君皇帝柯摩达將赫丘利作為自身的護衛,時常穿者赫丘利形象的衣服。在公元184年柯摩达將一年的月份全部依自己的名子重新命名,其中包括「赫丘利月」此用分可能是古羅馬的九月英语September_(Roman_month)十月英语September (Roman month)[4]這個新制度在192年的柯摩达謀殺案之後也一同廢除了。[5]

註釋编辑

參考資料
  1. T.P. Wiseman英语T.P. Wiseman, Remus: A Roman Myth (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 39, 41.
  2. 哈利卡納蘇斯的狄奧尼修斯 7.72.13-14, In describing the images of deities displayed in the ceremonial procession at Rome known as the pompa circensis英语pompa circensis, as cited by Jörg Rüpke英语Jörg Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, p. 41.
  3. Peter Herz, "Emperors: Caring for the Empire and Their Successors," in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell, 2007), p. 315.
  4. 卡西乌斯·狄奥 72.15.3 has Herculeus as October: M.P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), p. 112; Robert Hannah, "The Emperor's Stars: The Conservatori Portrait of Commodus," American Journal of Archaeology 90.3 (1986), pp. 341–342. The 罗马帝王纪 is internally inconsistent, at one point identifying September as the month of Hercules, and at another October: Scriptores Historiae Augustae VII, as cited by A.W. van Buren, "Graffiti at Ostia," Classical Review 37 (1923), p. 163 (Commodus 11.8 in the citation of Hannah, "The Emperor's Stars", p. 341, note 23, and Historia Augusta, "Commodus" 11.13).
  5. John R. Clarke, "The Decor of the House of Jupiter and Ganymede at Ostia Antica," in Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Architecture and Decor of the Domus, Villa, and Insula (University of Michigan Press, 1991, 1994), p. 92; John R. Clarke, The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 250: Ritual, Space, and Decoration (University of California Press, 1991), p. 322.
資料來源
  • Charlotte Coffin. "Hercules" in Peyré, Yves (ed.) A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Classical Mythology (2009)
  • Bertematti, Richard (2014). "The Heracliad: The Epic Saga of Hercules" (Tridium Press). ISBN 0990302717

外部連結编辑