軟腭鼻音

軟腭鼻音(velar nasal、agma)是輔音的一種,中文俗稱後鼻音,在國際音標中以ŋ(ng)表示,在X-SAMPA中以N表示。現代標準漢語的 ang、eng、ing、ong 的韻尾 ng 就是此音。

軟腭鼻音
ŋ
IPA編號119
編碼
HTML碼(十進制)ŋ
Unicode碼(十六進制)U+014B
X-SAMPA音標N
ASCII音標N
IPA盲文英语IPA Braille⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
音頻範例

特徵编辑

ŋ的變音编辑

IPA 描述
ŋ 原本的 ŋ
ŋ̊ 清化 ŋ
ŋ̍ 自成音節的 ŋ
ŋ̈ 氣聲化 ŋ
ŋ̃ 吱嘎音化 ŋ
ŋʷ 唇化 ŋ

出現語言编辑

該音見於漢語中编辑

  • 現代標準漢語僅用於韻尾: /jiŋ˥/
  • 部分官话 等零声母开口字,皆为软腭鼻音。
  • 粵語,此音可以在音首和音末中出現,如 /ŋɔː˩˧/ /hɪŋ˥/ /ŋɔːŋ˨˩/;亦可單獨出現,如 /ŋ̩˨˩/ /ŋ̩˩˧/
  • 吳語,字首現於,其餘从廣韻疑母字皆以ŋ作聲母。字末現于,其餘从廣韻通江宕梗曾攝平上去聲以ŋ作韻尾。儿化音以ŋ结尾,如女儿 /ȵyŋ/
  • 閩南語,可作聲母,如“夾”/ŋeʔ˦/韻尾,如“空”/kʰaŋ˦˦/成音節輔音,如“黃”/ŋ˨˦/、“光”/kŋ˦˦/

該音見於英語中编辑

英語中,軟腭鼻音只能發生在韻尾,有以下兩種情況:

  • 軟腭鼻音發生在一個單詞(或語素)的結束時,寫作<ng>:sing /sɪŋ/
  • 軟腭鼻音發生在軟腭塞音(/k//g/)之前,成為(主要音素 |N|) 而寫作<n>:bank /bæŋkʰ/; finger /'fɪŋgə(ɹ)/

該音見於其他語言中编辑

參考文獻编辑

  • Anderson, Gregory D. S., The Velar Nasal, Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S; Gil, David; 等 (编), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2008 [2008-04-30] 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim, Catalan, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1992, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine, Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2009 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen, Luxembourgish (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2013, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos, Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1992, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Gussmann, Edmund, Fisiak, Jacek , 编, Nasality in Polish and English (PDF), Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics (Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University), 1974, 2: 105–122 
  • Jassem, Wiktor, Polish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191  
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis, The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, 1969, ISBN 9780521153003 
  • Ladefoged, Peter, Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages 1, Wiley-Blackwell, 2005 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo, Croatian, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 66–69, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina, Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth, Tilquiapan Zapotec (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2008, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344  
  • Okada, Hideo, Japanese, International Phonetic Association (编), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press: 117–119, 1999, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III, The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2010, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Ostaszewska, Danuta; Tambor, Jolanta, Fonetyka i fonologia współczesnego języka polskiego, Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2000, ISBN 83-01-12992-1 
  • Pop, Sever, Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj, 1938 
  • Reed, A.W., Kāretu, Tīmoti , 编, The Reed Concise Māori Dictionary, 2001 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana, Italian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2004, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628  
  • Wells, J.C., Computer-Coded Phonemic Notation of Individual Languages of the European Community, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1989, 19 (1): 31–54, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005892 

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