鮪魚

鱼类
(重定向自金槍魚

金枪鱼(香港作吞拿魚,台湾作鮪魚),是一種海水魚類,屬於鯖科下面的金槍魚學名Thunnini)。本族包含515鮪魚[2],各物種之間大小變化很大,最小的鮪魚是圓舵鰹,其最大長度為50 cm(1.6英尺),重量為1.8公斤(4磅);最大的鮪魚則是北方藍鰭金槍魚,其最大長度為4.6米(15英尺),重量為684公斤(1,508磅),平均長度為2米(6.6英尺),據信其壽命可以長達50歲。

鮪魚Infobox info icon2.svg
化石时期:伊普雷斯期至今
56.0–0 Ma
[1]
Tuna assortment.png
各種鮪魚(從最上方開始):長鰭鮪魚北方藍鰭金槍魚黃鰭金槍魚短鮪
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 辐鳍鱼纲 Actinopteri
目: 鲭形目 Scombriformes
科: 鲭科 Scombridae
亚科: 鲭亚科 Scombrinae
族: 金槍魚族 Thunnini
Starks, 1910

鮪魚、月魚屬以及鼠鯊目是目前僅存可將體溫維持在比周圍水體溫度高的物種。鮪魚是一種活躍而敏捷的食肉動物,該物種擁有光滑的流線型身體,也是游動速度最快的遠洋魚類之一;舉例,黃鰭金槍魚的游動速度可達75 km/h(47 mph)[3]。鮪魚常在溫暖海域出現,故而成為一種大量商業捕撈的对象,也是釣魚活動當中的一種受歡迎魚類。然而,由於人類的過度捕撈藍鰭金槍魚等部分鮪魚物種已深陷滅絕危機[4]

詞源编辑

鮪魚的英語「tuna」衍生自古希臘語θύννοςthýnnos中世紀拉丁語格式Thunnus──而該詞又衍生自θύνωthýnō,「匆忙、飛奔」之意[5][6]

然而,英文种「tuna」的直接來源為美洲西班牙語,並依序源自西班牙語atún」、安達盧西亞阿拉伯語英语Andalusian Arabicat-tūn」(同化於阿拉伯语的التون‎,al-tūn,現代阿拉伯語為التن‎),然後再往前才是自上述提及之希臘語和拉丁文之來源[7]

分類编辑

金槍魚族為單系群演化支,包含5個及15個物種:

捕魚與食品生產引申的道德問題编辑

根據綠色和平的調查,吞拿魚食品生產背後有不少令人擔心的情況。「市面上部分吞拿魚貓糧罐頭,竟來自破壞性捕撈,生產過程充滿漁工的血淚。所謂的破壞性漁獲,是指大規模的工業化捕撈,將海中的生物一網打盡,不論是吞拿魚、幼魚,甚至是海龜、鯊魚及海豚,均無所遁逃,嚴重破壞海洋生態。過度捕撈更令近年的吞拿魚數量大減,而以往受港人熱捧的藍鰭吞拿魚,更被列為瀕危物種名單,情況令人擔心......更甚者,這些漁船作業往往涉及剝削漁工的人權,例如出現虐待勞工、強迫工作等情況。」(綠色和平,2018年)[8]

註釋编辑

  1. ^ Tribe Thunnini Starks 1910. PBDB. [2019-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2019-01-21). 
  2. ^ Graham, Jeffrey B.; Dickson, Kathryn A. Tuna Comparative Physiology. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004, 207 (23): 4015–4024. PMID 15498947. doi:10.1242/jeb.01267. 
  3. ^ Block, Barbara A.; Booth, David; Carey, Francis G. Direct measurement of swimming speeds and depth of blue marlin (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 1992, 166: 267–284 [19 September 2012]. ISSN 0022-0949. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2015-09-04). 
  4. ^ Collette B and 8 others. Thunnus maccoyii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011. [9 January 2015].  "This species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. Its generation length is conservatively estimated to be 12 years. Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973–2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered. Implementation of effective conservation and management measures are urgently needed."
  5. ^ θύννος in Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart, with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
  6. ^ θύνω in Liddell and Scott.
  7. ^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. American Heritage Dictionary Entry: tuna. ahdictionary.com. [2019-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-24). 
  8. ^ 綠色和平:吞拿魚罐頭的隱藏秘密. *CUP. 2018-06-24 [2022-07-01]. (原始内容存档于2022-07-01) (美国英语). 

參考文獻编辑

  • Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How Overfishing Is Changing the World and What We Eat英语The End of the Line (book). Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  • FAO: Species Catalog Vol. 2 Scombrids of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 2. FIR/S125 Vol. 2.ISBN 92-5-101381-0
  • FAO: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources: Tuna and tuna-like species – Global, 2005页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) Rome.
  • Majkowski, Jacek (1995) "Tuna and tuna-like species"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, FAO Fisheries technical paper 457, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9.
  • Majkowski J, Arrizabalaga H, Carocci F and Murua H (2011) "Tuna and tuna-like species"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, pages 227–244, FAO Fisheries technical paper 569, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9.
  • Standard of Identity for Canned Tuna (United States), Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 161.190 – Canned tuna.
  • Viñas J and Tudela S (2009) "A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus)" PLoS One, 4(10): e7606.

外部連結编辑