锅炉和压力容器规范

鍋爐和壓力容器規范(ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code,BPVC)是由美國機械工程師學會(American Society of Mechanical Engineers,ASME)所制定一項標準,用以釐定、制約鍋爐壓力容器的相關設計和建造方式和規限。[1]該規格是由擁有在相關領域專業及經驗的從業員和志願者所撰寫,並會定期作出調整及更新。[2] 而美國機械工程師學會則會作為認證機構並可授權獨立的第三方機構對工業設施如發電廠、生產廠房內的鍋爐壓力容器進行檢驗、測試,並確保其質量和性能表現等指標合符鍋爐和壓力容器規格的標準。[3]

歷史编辑

鍋爐和壓力容器規范是被撰寫及制定於在20世紀初。原因是當時在美國麻省發生了數宗大型工業意外爆炸事件,並引起了公眾及工程從業員對鍋爐及壓力容器相關工業安全的關注。在1905年3月20日,一座位於麻省布羅克頓(Brockton)格羅弗製鞋廠內的火管式鍋爐發生巨大爆炸(詳見格羅弗製鞋廠災難事件英语Grover Shoe Factory disaster)並導致58人死亡及150人受傷。後來於1906年12月6日,一間位於麻省林恩市(Lynn)名為 P.J. Harney Shoe Company 的造鞋工廠內的鍋爐發生爆炸。對此,麻省於1907年基於原有的美國機械工程師學會規條之上頒佈了第一條針對建造蒸汽鍋爐的法律。[4][5]

ASME convened the Board of Boiler Rules before it became the ASME Boiler Code Committee which was formed in 1911. This committee put in the form work for the first edition of the ASME Boiler Code - Rules for the Construction of Stationary Boilers and for the Allowable Working Pressures, which was issued in 1914 and published in 1915.[5]

第一版的鍋爐和壓力容器規范,即為1914年版本(1914 edition),包含單卷共114頁。[6][7]隨著時間和科技發展,時至今日已擴展至超過92,000份並應用於超過100個國家。[5] 截至March 2011年 (March 2011-Missing required parameter 1=month!),鍋爐和壓力容器規格包含共28卷共16,000頁。[7]

自第一版的推出起,規范的更改和持續驗證均由獨立的顧問或專業的調查員執行,但亦同時導致了對規范程度不一的詮釋。因此在1919年2月,國家鍋爐與壓力容器檢驗委員會英语National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors(National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors)因而成立。[5]

規范章節编辑

LIST OF SECTIONS[8]

以下是根據2019年版本的鍋爐和壓力容器規范所列出:[9]

  • ASME BPVC 章節 I - 電力鍋爐建設規則(Rules for Construction of Power Boilers)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 II - 材料(Materials)
  • 部份 A - 亞鐵材料規格(Ferrous Material Specifications)
  • 部份 B - 非亞鐵材料規格(Nonferrous Material Specifications)
  • 部份 C - 焊條,電極和填充金屬規格(Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes and Filler Metals)
  • 部份 D - 規格(慣用)(Properties(Customary))
  • 部份 D - 規格(制式)(Properties(Metric))
  • ASME BPVC 章節 III - 核設施組成部分建設規則(Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components)
  • Subsection NCA - General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2
  • Appendices
  • Division 1
  • Subsection NB - Class 1 Components
  • Subsection NC - Class 2 Components
  • Subsection ND - Class 3 Components
  • Subsection NE - Class MC Components
  • Subsection NF - Supports
  • Subsection NG - Core Support Structures
  • Division 2 - Code for Concrete Containments
  • Division 3 - Containment Systems for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material
  • Division 5 - High Temperature Reactors
  • ASME BPVC 章節 IV - 加熱鍋爐的施工規則(Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 V - 無損檢測(Nondestructive Examination)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 VI - 加熱鍋爐保養和操作的建議規則(Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 VII - 動力鍋爐的建議保養分針(Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 VIII - 壓力容器的施工規則(Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels)
  • Division 1
  • Division 2 - Alternative Rules
  • Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels
  • ASME BPVC 章節 IX - 焊接,釬焊和熔斷的資歷準則(Welding,Brazing,and Fusing Qualifications)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 X - 纖維增強塑料壓力容器(Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels)
  • ASME BPVC 章節 XI - 核電站部件在役檢查規則(Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components)
  • Division 1 - Rules for Inspection and Testing of Components of Light-Water-Cooled Plants
  • Division 2 - Requirements for Reliability and Integrity Management (RIM) Programs for Nuclear Power Plants
  • ASME BPVC 章節 XII - Rules for the Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
  • ASME BPVC Code Cases - Boilers and Pressure Vessels

ADDENDA

Addenda, which include additions and revisions to the individual Sections of the Code, are issued accordingly for a particular edition of the code up until the next edition.[8] Addenda is no longer in use since Code Edition 2013. It has been replaced by two years edition period.

INTERPRETATIONS

ASME's interpretations to submitted technical queries relevant to a particular Section of the Code are issued accordingly. Interpretations are also available through the internet.[10]

CODES CASES

Code Cases provide rules that permit the use of materials and alternative methods of construction that are not covered by existing BPVC rules.[11] For those Cases that have been adopted will appear in the appropriate Code Cases book: "Boilers and Pressure Vessels" and "Nuclear Components."[8]

Codes Cases are usually intended to be incorporated in the Code in a later edition. When it is used, the Code Case specifies mandatory requirements which must be met as it would be with the Code. There are some jurisdictions that do not automatically accept Code Cases.[8]

參見编辑

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Antaki, George A. Piping and pipeline engineering: design, construction, maintenance, integrity, and repair. Marcel Dekker Inc. 2003. ISBN 9780203911150. 
  2. ^ ASME Codes and Standards 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期February 14, 2010,.
  3. ^ Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection According to ASME. [2020-03-27]. (原始内容存档于2017-01-14). 
  4. ^ Balmer, Robert T. Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. 13.10 Modern Steam Power Plants: Academic Press. 2010: 864. ISBN 978-0-12-374996-3. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Varrasi, John. To Protect and Serve - Celebrating 125 Years Of Asme Codes & Standards. MEMagazine. June 2009. 
  6. ^ Canonico, Domenic A. The Origins of ASME's Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. MEMagazine. February 2000. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 The History of ASME's Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. ASME. March 2011 [24 July 2015]. (原始内容存档于2017-06-24). 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 An International Code - 2010 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 1. ASME. July 1, 2011. 
  9. ^ BPV Complete Code - 2019. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 2019 Edition. ASME. [July 8, 2019]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-29). 
  10. ^ Codes & Standards Interpretations On-Line. Codes and Standards Electronic Tools. ASME International. [10 November 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011-11-13). 
  11. ^ Code Cases of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. ASME. [7 November 2011]. (原始内容存档于18 July 2012). 

外部链接编辑