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雲斑厚紋蟹學名Pachygrapsus marmoratus)是厚紋蟹屬的一種螃蟹,分佈于黑海、地中海和大西洋的部分地區。

 
雲斑厚紋蟹
Pachygrapsus marmoratus 2009 G4.jpg
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 節肢動物門 Arthropoda
綱: 軟甲綱 Malacostraca
目: 十足目 Decapoda
科: 方蟹科 Grapsidae
屬: 厚紋蟹屬 Pachygrapsus
種: 雲斑厚紋蟹 P. marmoratus
二名法
Pachygrapsus marmoratus
(Fabricius, 1787)[1]
異名
  • Cancer marmoratus
  • Cancer femoralis
  • Grapsus varius
  • Grapsus savignyi

特徵编辑

雲斑厚紋蟹的甲殼呈方形,長2.2-3.6厘米,呈深紫褐色,有黃色的大理石紋。[2]它們的甲殼上每邊有三個鋸齒,這與地中海的其他厚紋蟹屬生物有所不同。[3][2]它們能夠移動得很快,飛快的走入石縫之間,很難捕捉。[2]

分佈编辑

雲斑厚紋蟹廣泛分佈在南歐[4]黑海摩洛哥海岸,並沿葡萄牙西班牙法國大西洋海岸[5],與及在北至英國南安普敦英吉利海峽出沒。[5]它們的分佈地擴展可能與全球暖化有關。[6]

生態编辑

雲斑厚紋蟹是雜食性的,主要吃其棲息地內豐富的藻類動物。它們最喜歡吃帽貝及同種相食。[4]它們只會使用一種方式攻擊帽貝,但往往不成功。[7]在有蔭的海邊,它們會較少吃蚌,取而代之是吃藤壺[8]

雲斑厚紋蟹的天敵包括麝香蛸Eledone moschata[9]

雲斑厚紋蟹的幼體是浮游動物,只可以生存31天。這樣使得它們群落間有高度的基因流,及廣泛散佈到新的地區。[10]

參考编辑

  1. Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie. Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 2008, 17: 1–286. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Rose Edwards. Pachygrapsus marmoratus: a marbled rock crab. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2005 [2010-01-11]. 
  3. A. M. Vaccaro & C. Pipitone. First record of Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850) (Brachyura, Grapsidae) in Italian waters (PDF). Crustaceana. 2005, 78 (6): 677–83. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 S. Cannicci, M. Gomei, B. Boddi & M. Vannini. Feeding habits and natural diet of the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic browser or selective feeder?. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2002, 54 (6): 983–1001. doi:10.1006/ecss.2001.0869. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ray W. Ingle & Paul F. Clark. First reported occurrences of the marbled crab, Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea) in southern coastal waters of the British Isles (PDF). JMBA2 Biodiversity Records. 2006. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-07-21). 
  6. Jean-Claude Dauvin. New record of the marbled crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea) on the coast of northern Cotentin, Normandy, western English Channel. Marine Biodiversity Records. 2009, 2: e92. doi:10.1017/S1755267209001109. 
  7. Ana Silva, Diana Boaventura, Augusto Flores, Pedro Ré & Stephen J. Hawkins. Rare predation by the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus on the limpet Patella depressa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2004, 84 (2): 367–70. doi:10.1017/S0025315404009294h. 
  8. Ana Catarina Ferreira Silva, Sónia Brazão, Steve J. Hawkins, Richard C. Thompson & Diana M. Boaventura. Abundance, population structure and claw morphology of the semi-terrestrial crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787) on shores of differing wave exposure. Marine Biology. 2009, 156 (12): 2591–9. doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1283-1. 
  9. Halil Şen. Food preference of Eledone moschata Lamarck, 1799 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in captive conditions (PDF). International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2007, 1 (2): 29–31. [失效連結]
  10. Inês C. Silva, Natacha Mesquita, Christoph D. Schubart, Maria Judite Alves & José Paula. Genetic patchiness of the shore crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus along the Portuguese coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2009, 378 (1–2): 50–57. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2009.07.032.