- Encyclopædia Britannica, "Greeks, Romans, and barbarians (from Europe, history of)": "Fusions of power occurred in the shape of leagues of cities, such as the Peloponnesian League, the Delian League, and the Boeotian League. The efficacy of these leagues depended chiefly upon the hegemony of a leading city (Sparta, Athens, or Thebes)"
- Wickersham, JM., Hegemony and Greek Historians, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994, p. x.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ch'i": "As a result, Ch'i began to dominate most of China proper; in 651 BC it formed the little states of the area into a league, which was successful in staving off invasions from the semibarbarian regimes to the north and south. Although Ch'i thus gained hegemony over China, its rule was short-lived; after Duke Huan's death, internal disorders caused it to lose the leadership of the new confederation"
- Parchami, A., Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana, Routledge, 2009, p. 32.
- al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari
- Encyclopædia Britannica, "Harsha"
- Story, J. Charlemagne: Empire and Society, Manchester University Press, 2005, p. 193.
- Robert E. Kelly. What Would Chinese Hegemony Look Like?
- Joseph, Jonathan, Hegemony: A Realist Analysis, New York: Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-26836-2
- Slack, Jennifer Daryl, The Theory and Method of Articulation in Cultural Studies, (编) Morley, David; Chen, Kuan-Hsing, Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, London: Routledge: 112–127, 1996
- Giddens, A & Duneier, M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology. 2nd ed. Fifth Avenue, NY: Norton.
- Hopper, P. (2007). Understanding Cultural Globalization. 1st ed. Malden, MA: Polity Press.