- [T. Makarov, Tatar Grammar of the Caucasian Dialect]
- Smith, Sebastian. Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya revised. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2005: 49–50  [17 June 2021]. ISBN 9780857710284. （原始内容存档于2022-06-20）.
The highlanders' only real chance lay in foreign intervention. They could fight on for years, but they could never drive the Russians back. Only Turkish or British help could force that. There was reason to hope. [...] Shamil in particular believed that help would come from Britain, then Russia's greatest superpower rival.
There were popular support groups in England, and the newspapers were full of the highlanders' exploits. [...] Shamil had other backers. Russia and Britain were then playing what was called the 'great game,' a spy struggle for influence in Central Asia [...] Some feared Russia, using the Caucasus as the gateway to Asia, would try to invade India and for that reason Shamil must be helped to block the Russians' advance. But these cold warriors of the day never quite won the debate and although Shamil wrote polite appeals for help in letters to Queen Victoria, the answers he wanted never came.