B級片

由“B级片之王”称号的罗杰·科曼于1963年为美国国际影业英语American International Pictures拍摄的《魔鸦英语The Raven (1963 film)》,他担任该片的制片与导演。文森特·普莱斯领衔主演;多名性格演员英语Character actor参演,其中包括年轻的杰克·尼科尔森

B级片(英語:B movieB film)是指低成本英语Low-budget film制作的商业电影,而并非文艺片。在最初的定义里,B级片指的是在好莱坞黄金时代中以双片连映英语Double feature形式发行的电影中相对不为人知的那部影片。这个定义有点类似唱片行业里的B面歌。但是在现在的美国电影产业中,虽然双片连映的制作发行方式已经在1950年代末逐步消失,但是B级片却有了更广泛的定义。在后黄金时代的使用场景中,双方的定义都有歧义。一方面,B级片被主要认为是剥削电影,其特征就是淫秽的;而另一方面B级片又被认为展示出了电影的高工艺水平及美学创造力。

在这两种用法中,大多数B级片都被认为代表了一种特定的电影类型西部片是B级片的黄金时代;而低成本科幻电影恐怖电影则在1950年代开始变得受欢迎。在早期的系列B级片里,相同的演员总是反复饰演相同的角色。但是B级片的片长总是短于那些顶级制作的电影[1],基本上都在70分钟以内。因此导致当时的观众认为B级片不如那些大制作电影,并且也会让很多影评人忽略个别B级片。

现代的B级片虽然还会激发多部续集电影的制作,但是已经很少看到系列电影的出现。并且随着大制作电影的平均放映时长的增加,B级片的片长也开始增加。在当今的用法中,B级片的定义依旧存在矛盾。现代的B级片可能是那种没有什么艺术野心的类型电影;也可能是那些既不受强加给大制作电影的约束,也不受公认“严肃独立电影”传统束缚的那些活泼且充满活力的电影。同时,这个术语也可以泛指一些高预算且内容带有剥削性质的主流电影,它们通常与传统的B级片相关类型片有关。

从一开始到今天,B级片为从事电影行业的人和其他事业而遭受衰败的人提供了机会。安东尼·曼乔纳森·戴米等知名电影人都是从B级片开始锻炼自己的制作能力;也是约翰·韦恩杰克·尼科尔森等著名影星职业生涯的开始;同时还给前电影明星文森特·普莱斯凯伦·布莱克提供了继续事业的机遇。而有些演员,如:贝拉·洛戈西埃迪·康斯坦丁英语Eddie Constantine布鲁斯·坎贝尔帕姆·格里尔英语Pam Grier等,则将他们职业生涯的大部分作品贡献给了B级片。B级演员有时就指那些在专门或主要拍摄B级片的电影演员。

发展历史编辑

衍生术语编辑

C级片以及更为常见的Z级片所描述的电影和B级片比起来,品質逐级降低。与免下车电影午夜场电影英语Midnight movie与特定历史现象相关的名词相较,C级片和Z级片更像是B级片的同义词。

C级片编辑

C级片指的是比B级片更低端的电影类型;或者在某些电影的分类方法中,C级片指的是仅次于B级片的低端电影类型[2]。1980年代,随着有线电视的兴起,C级片以越来越高的频率作为低质量类型电影的代名词而出现,而这些电影大多用于填充有线电视市场。此后,C级片中的“C”有了双重含义,一方面指该类影片质量低于B级片,另一方面则指代有线电视的英语“Cable Television”的首字母。

Z级片编辑

恐幻片编辑

B级剧编辑

参考资料编辑

脚注编辑

  1. ^ B-film. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2020-05-09]. 
  2. ^ Megumi Komiya 2012

文献编辑

  • Eugene Archer. Screen: 'House of Usher':Poe Story on Bill With 'Why Must I Die?'. 纽约时报 (纽约时报公司英语The New York Times Company). 1960-09-15 [2020-05-10]. 
  • Chris Auty. John Pym, 编. The Amazing Colossal Man. Time Out Film Guide 13th Edition (Time Out). 2004-10-07: 34. ISBN 9781904978213. 
  • Tino Balio. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930-1939 2nd Edition. University of California Press. 1995 [2020-05-10]. ISBN 9780520203341. 
  • John Berra. Declarations of Independence: American Cinema and the Partiality of Independent Production. Intellect Books. 2008 [2020-05-10]. ISBN 9781841501857. 
  • Peter Biskind. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock-'n'-Roll Generation Changed Hollywood. Bloomsbury. 1998 [2020-05-10]. ISBN 9780747536437. 
  • Guy Braucort. William Johnson, 编. Interview with Don Siegel. Focus on the Science Fiction Film (Prentice-Hall). 1970: 74–76 [2020-05-10]. ISBN 9780137951796. 
  • Seth Cagin; Philip Dray. Hollywood Films of the Seventies: Sex, Drugs, Violence, Rock 'n' Roll & Politics. Harper & Row. 1984 [2020-05-11]. ISBN 9780060911171. 
  • Vincent Canby. Screen: By Russ Meyer. 纽约时报 (纽约时报公司英语The New York Times Company). 1969-09-06 [2020-05-11]. 
  • Vincent Canby. Screen: Down-and-out Youths In 'suburbia'. 纽约时报 (纽约时报公司英语The New York Times Company). 1984-04-13 [2020-05-11]. 
  • James Chapman. Licence to Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films 2nd Edition Revision. Columbia University Press. 2001 [2020-05-11]. ISBN 9780231120494. 
  • Jason Paul Collum. Assault of the Killer B's: Interviews with 20 Cult Film Actresses. McFarland. 2004 [2020-05-11]. ISBN 9780786418183. 
  • Cook, David A. (2000). Lost Illusions: American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970–1979. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23265-8
  • Corman, Roger, with Jim Jerome (1998). How I Made a Hundred Movies in Hollywood and Never Lost a Dime, new ed. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80874-9
  • Cousins, Mark (2004). The Story of Film. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 1-56025-612-5
  • Davies, Adam P., and Nicol Wistreich (2007). The Film Finance Handbook: How to Fund Your Film. London: Netribution. ISBN 0-9550143-2-8
  • Denby, David (1985). "Where the Coyotes Howl", New York, January 21, pp. 51–53.
  • Denisoff, R. Serge, and William D. Romanowski (1991). Risky Business: Rock in Film. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction. ISBN 0-88738-843-4
  • Desser, David (2000). "The Kung Fu Craze: Hong Kong Cinema's First American Reception", in The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity, ed. Poshek Fu and David Desser, pp. 19–43. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77235-4
  • Di Franco, J. Philip, ed. (1979). The Movie World of Roger Corman. New York and London: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-87754-050-0
  • Ebert, Roger (1974). "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre," Chicago Sun-Times, January 1 (available online).
  • Epstein, Edward Jay (2005). The Big Picture: The New Logic of Money and Power in Hollywood. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6353-1
  • Finler, Joel W. (2003). The Hollywood Story, 3d ed. London and New York: Wallflower. ISBN 1-903364-66-3
  • Frank, Allan G. (1998). The Films of Roger Corman: "Shooting My Way out of Trouble". London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-8272-9
  • Frasier, David K. (1997 [1990]). Russ Meyer—The Life and Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0472-8
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1987). The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-23108-1
  • Greenspun, Roger (1973). "Guercio's 'Electra Glide in Blue' Arrives: Director Makes Debut With a Mystery," The New York Times, August 20 (available online).
  • Haines, Richard W. (2003). The Moviegoing Experience, 1968–2001. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1361-1
  • Halperin, James L., ed. (2006). Heritage Signature Vintage Movie Poster Auction #636. Dallas: Heritage Capital. ISBN 1-59967-060-7
  • Harper, Jim (2004). Legacy of Blood: A Comprehensive Guide to Slasher Movies. Manchester, UK: Headpress. ISBN 1-900486-39-3
  • Heffernan, Kevin (2004). Ghouls, Gimmicks, and Gold: Horror Films and the American Movie Business, 1953–1968. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3215-9
  • Hirschhorn, Clive (1979). The Warner Bros. Story. New York: Crown. ISBN 0-517-53834-2
  • Hirschhorn, Clive (1999). The Columbia Story. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-59836-5
  • Hoberman, J., and Jonathan Rosenbaum (1983). Midnight Movies. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80433-6
  • Hollows, Joanne (2003). "The Masculinity of Cult," in Defining Cult Movies: The Cultural Politics of Oppositional Taste, ed. Mark Jancovich, pp. 35–53. Manchester, UK, and New York: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6631-X
  • Hunter, I. Q. (2009). "Exploitation as Adaptation", in Cultural Borrowings: Appropriation, Reworking, Transformation, ed. Iain Robert Smith, pp. 8–33. Nottingham: Scope. ISBN 978-0-9564641-0-1 (available online).
  • Hurd, Mary G. (2007). Women Directors and Their Films. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-98578-4
  • James, David E. (2005). The Most Typical Avant-Garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24257-2
  • Jewell, Richard B., with Vernon Harbin (1982). The RKO Story. New York: Arlington House/Crown. ISBN 0-517-54656-6
  • Kael, Pauline (1973). "Un-People," in her Reeling (1976), pp. 263–79. New York: Warner. ISBN 0-446-83420-3
  • Kauffman, Linda S. (1998). Bad Girls and Sick Boys: Fantasies in Contemporary Art and Culture. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21032-8
  • King, Geoff (2005). American Independent Cinema. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-937-0
  • Kinnard, Roy (1988). Beasts and Behemoths: Prehistoric Creatures in the Movies. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8108-2062-5
  • Komiya, Megumi, and Barry Litman, "The Economics of the Prerecorded Videocassette Industry," in Social and Cultural Aspects of VCR Use, ed. Julia R. Dobrow, pp. 25–44. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-0499-4
  • Landis, Bill, and Michelle Clifford (2002). Sleazoid Express: A Mind-Twisting Tour through the Grindhouse Cinema of Times Square. New York: Fireside/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-1583-4
  • Langford, Barry (2005). Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond, 2d ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1903-8
  • Lasky, Betty (1989). RKO: The Biggest Little Major of Them All. Santa Monica, Calif.: Roundtable. ISBN 0-915677-41-5
  • Lawrence, Novotny (2008). Blaxploitation Films of the 1970s: Blackness and Genre. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96097-5
  • Lentz, Harris M. (2002). Obituaries in the Performing Arts, 2001. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1278-X
  • Lev, Peter (2003). Transforming the Screen: 1950–1959. New York et al.: Thomson-Gale. ISBN 0-684-80495-6
  • Levine, Elena (2007). Wallowing in Sex: The New Sexual Culture of 1970s American Television. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3919-6
  • Lewis, Jon (2002). Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle over Censorship Created the Modern Film Industry. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5143-1
  • Loy, R. Philip (2004). Westerns in a Changing America, 1955–2000. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1871-0
  • Lubasch, Arnold H. (1979). "Allied Artists Seeks Help Under Bankruptcy Act; Allied Artists Files Chapter XI," The New York Times, April 5.
  • Lyons, Arthur (2000). Death on the Cheap: The Lost B Movies of Film Noir. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80996-6
  • Maltby, Richard (2000). "'The Problem of Interpretation...': Authorial and Institutional Intentions In and Around Kiss Me Deadly," Screening the Past (June 30, available online).
  • Mank, Gregory William (2001). Hollywood Cauldron: 13 Horror Films from the Genre's Golden Age. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1112-0
  • Maslin, Janet (1997). "An Orgy of Bent Fenders and Bent Love," The New York Times, March 21 (available online).
  • Mathijs, Ernest, and Xavier Mendik,eds. (2008). The Cult Film Reader. Maidenhead and New York: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-21924-1
  • Matthews, Melvin E. (2007). Hostile Aliens, Hollywood, and Today's News: 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. New York: Algora. ISBN 0-87586-497-X
  • McCarthy, Todd, and Charles Flynn, eds. (1975). Kings of the Bs: Working Within the Hollywood System—An Anthology of Film History and Criticism. New York: E.P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-47378-5
  • McGilligan, Patrick (1996). Jack's Life: A Biography of Jack Nicholson. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31378-6
  • Merritt, Greg (2000). Celluloid Mavericks: The History of American Independent Film. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 1-56025-232-4
  • Milne, Tom (2005). "Electra Glide in Blue," in Pym, Time Out Film Guide, p. 389.
  • Morrow, John (1996). "Cinekirbyesque: Examining Jack's Deal with Empire Pictures," Jack Kirby Collector 12 (July).
  • Mottram, James (2006). The Sundance Kids: How the Mavericks Took Back Hollywood. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-571-22267-6
  • Muller, Eddie (1998). Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-18076-4
  • Nachbar, Jack, ed. (1974). Focus on the Western. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-950626-8
  • Naremore, James (1998). More Than Night: Film Noir in Its Contexts. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21294-0
  • Nason, Richard (1959). "Weak 'Hercules'; Italian-Made Spectacle Opens at 135 Theatres," The New York Times, July 23 (available online).
  • O'Connor, John J. (1995). "Horror Hero of the 90's, Half Man, Half Bomb," The New York Times, July 11 (available online).
  • Oppermann, Michael (1996). "Ed Wood" (film review), Journal of American Studies of Turkey 3 (spring, available online).
  • Ottoson, Robert (1981). A Reference Guide to the American Film Noir: 1940–1958. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1363-7
  • Paul, William (1994). Laughing, Screaming: Modern Hollywood Horror and Comedy. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08464-1
  • Petit, Chris (2005). "The Winged Serpent (aka Q—The Winged Serpent)," in Pym, Time Out Film Guide, p. 1481.
  • Prince, Stephen (2002). A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980–1989. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23266-6
  • Pym, John, ed. (2005). Time Out Film Guide, 14th ed. London et al.: Time Out. ISBN 1-904978-87-8
  • Quarles, Mike (2001 [1993]). Down and Dirty: Hollywood's Exploitation Filmmakers and Their Movies. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1142-2
  • Rabiger, Michael (2008). Directing: Film Techniques and Aesthetics, 4th ed. Burlington, Mass.: Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80882-7
  • Rausch, Andrew J., with Michael Dequina (2008). Fifty Filmmakers: Conversations with Directors from Roger Avary to Steven Zaillian. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-3149-0
  • Reid, John Howard (2005a). Hollywood 'B' Movies: A Treasury of Spills, Chills & Thrills. Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu. ISBN 1-4116-5065-4
  • Reid, John Howard (2005b). Movie Westerns: Hollywood Films the Wild, Wild West. Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu. ISBN 1-4116-6610-0
  • Rockoff, Adam (2002). Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978–1986. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1227-5
  • Reynaud, Bérénice (2006). "Wanda's Shattered Lives" (booklet accompanying Parlour Pictures DVD release of Wanda).
  • Rubin, Martin (1999). Thrillers. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58183-4
  • Russell, Carolyn R. (2001). The Films of Joel and Ethan Coen. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0973-8
  • Sapolsky, Barry S., and Fred Molitor (1996). "Content Trends in Contemporary Horror Films," in Horror Films: Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions, ed. James B. Weaver, pp. 33–48. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-1174-5
  • Schaefer, Eric (1992). "Of Hygiene and Hollywood: Origins of the Exploitation Film", in Hollywood: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies—Vol. 1: Historical Dimensions: The Development of the American Film Industry (2004), ed. Thomas Schatz, pp. 161–80 (originally published in The Velvet Light Trap 30). New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28131-8
  • Schaefer, Eric (1999). "Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!": A History of Exploitation Films, 1919–1959. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2374-5
  • Schatz, Thomas (1993). "The New Hollywood", in Film Theory Goes to the Movies: Cultural Analysis of Contemporary Film, ed. Jim Collins, Hilary Radner, and Ava Preacher Collins, pp. 8–36. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90575-3
  • Schatz, Thomas (1998 [1989]). The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19596-2
  • Schatz, Thomas (1999 [1997]). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22130-3
  • Schneider, Steven Jay, and Tony Williams (2005). Horror International. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3101-7
  • Schrader, Paul (1972). "Notes on Film Noir", in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader, pp. 53–63 (originally published in Film Comment 8, no. 1).
  • Scott, A. O. (2005). "Where Have All the Howlers Gone?" The New York Times, "Arts & Leisure," December 18.
  • Segrave, Kerry (1992). Drive-In Theaters: A History from Their Inception in 1933. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-89950-752-2
  • Shapiro, Jerome F. (2002). Atomic Bomb Cinema: The Apocalyptic Imagination on Film. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93659-4
  • Silver, Alain (1995). "Kiss Me Deadly: Evidence of a Style", rev. ver., in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader, pp. 209–35.
  • Silver, Alain, and James Ursini, eds. (1996). Film Noir Reader. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight. ISBN 0-87910-197-0
  • Staiger, Janet (2000). Blockbuster TV: Must-see Sitcoms in the Network Era. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9757-1
  • Stevenson, Jack (2003). Land of a Thousand Balconies: Discoveries and Confessions of a B-Movie Archaeologist. Manchester, UK: Headpress/Critical Vision. ISBN 1-900486-23-7
  • Strawn, Linda May (1975 [1974]). "Samuel Z. Arkoff [interview]", in McCarthy and Flynn, Kings of the Bs, pp. 255–66.
  • Syder, Andrew, and Dolores Tierney (2005). "Importation/Mexploitation, or, How a Crime-Fighting, Vampire-Slaying Mexican Wrestler Almost Found Himself in an Italian Sword-and-Sandals Epic", in Schneider and Williams, Horror International, pp. 33–55.
  • Taves, Brian (1995 [1993]). "The B Film: Hollywood's Other Half", in Balio, Grand Design, pp. 313–50.
  • Thompson, Howard (1960). "'Hercules Unchained' Heads Twin Bill", The New York Times.
  • Tuska, Jon (1974). "The American Western Cinema: 1903–Present", in Nachbar, Focus on the Western, pp. 25–43.
  • Tuska, Jon (1999). The Vanishing Legion: A History of Mascot Pictures, 1927–1935. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0749-2
  • Van Peebles, Melvin (2003). "The Real Deal: What It Was... Is! Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song" (commentary accompanying Xenon Entertainment DVD release of Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song).
  • Warren, Bill (2001). The Evil Dead Companion. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-27501-3
  • Waterman, David (2005). Hollywood's Road to Riches. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01945-8
  • West, Richard (1974). "Scariest Movie Ever?", Texas Monthly, March, p. 9.
  • Williams, Tony (1996). Hearths of Darkness: The Family in the American Horror Film. Cranbury, N.J., London, and Mississauga, Ontario: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3564-4
  • Willis, Sharon (1997). High Contrast: Race and Gender in Contemporary Hollywood Film. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2041-X
  • Wood, Robin (2003). Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan—and Beyond, exp. and rev. ed. New York and Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12967-X
  • Wyatt, Justin (1998). "The Formation of the 'Major Independent': Miramax, New Line, and the New Hollywood", in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema, ed. Stephen Neale and Murray Smith, pp. 74–90. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17010-9
  • Zeitchik, Steven, and Nicole Laporte (2006). "Atomic Label Proves a Blast for Fox", Variety, November 19 (available online).

外部链接编辑