- 阿卡德名词词根“ il”-意为“男神”或“女神”，从闪米特语'il-按顶音法所衍生；
- 阿卡德词 šamû 意思是“天空”；
- By assyriological convention, capitals identify a cuneiform sign, while the phonemic value of a sign in a given context is given in lower case. See also Sumerogram.
- Edzard, 2003
- Hayes, 2000
- Mircea Eliade, John C. Holt, Patterns in comparative religion, 1958, p. 94. The connection of dingir and Old Turkic tengere was made by F. Hommel in Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients (1928). P. A. Barton in Semitic and Hamitic Origins (1934) suggested that the Mesopotamian sky god Anu may have been imported from Central Asia to Mesopotamia. The similarity of dingir and tengri was noted as early as 1862 (i.e. during the early phase of the decipherment of the Sumerian language, before even the term Sumerian had been coined to refer to it), by George Rawlinson in his The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (p. 78).
- 玛格丽特.惠特尼.格林, 《苏美尔的埃利都》
- Edzard, Dietz Otto. Sumerian Grammar. Handbook of Oriental Studies 71. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. 2003. ISBN 1-58983-252-3.
- Hayes, John L. A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts. Aids and Research Tools in Ancient Near Eastern Studies Second revised. Malibu: Undena Publications. 2000. ISBN 0-89003-508-1.