草稿:Fuyug语

Fuyug
区域巴布亚新几内亚
母语使用人数14,000(2003)[1]
語系
語言代碼
ISO 639-3fuy
Glottologfuyu1242[2]

Fuyug语(又称FuyugeFuyugheMafulu语)是一种在巴布亚新几内亚中央省使用的的语言。该语种的使用者约有14000人,分布在戈伊拉拉縣的300个村庄里。[3]

语音编辑

Fuyug的惯例是用“a”表示/ɑ/、“e”代表/ɛ/,“y”表示/j/,对应的IPA字符表示剩余的音素。

元音编辑

Fuyug possesses five vowel phonemes.[4]

前元音 後元音
閉元音 i u
中元音 ɛ o
開元音 ɑ

The vowel /ɛ/ is pronounced as the diphthong [ɛi̯] when word-final as well as before a word-final consonant. For example, ateg ("truth") is pronounced [ɑˈtɛi̯ɡ] and ode ("where") as [oˈdɛi̯].[5]

All vowels are nasalised before a nasal consonant, as in in ("pandanus") [ˈĩn], ung ("nose") [ˈũŋɡ], em ("house") [ˈẽĩ̯m].[6]

辅音编辑

Fuyug has 14 consonant phonemes.[7]

Labial Coronal Velar
Plosive Voiceless p t k
Voiced b d ɡ
Fricative Voiceless f s
Voiced v
Nasal m n
Approximant w j
Liquid l

The voiceless plosive are aspirated in a word-final position and before /i/: endanti ("outside") [ɛ̃nˈdɑ̃ntʰi], oki ("fire") [ˈokʰi], eyak ("return") [ɛˈjɑkʰ].[7]

The nasal phoneme /n/ assimilates before a velar consonant becoming [ŋ] : yangos ("rain") [jɑ̃ŋˈɡos].[8]

The pronunciation of the liquid /l/ is in free variation between a lateral [l] and a flap [ɾ]. However, with the exception of words of foreign origin where the word in the source language is written with an r, this is represented in the orthography as l.[5]

Syllables编辑

Fuyug syllables come in the shape (C)V(C)(C). There cannot be more than two consonants adjacent to one another word-internally and the only final clusters permitted are mb, nd and ng. Within a word vowels may not follow one another.[9]

Stress编辑

Stress in Fuyug is predictable. Stress falls on the final syllable in mono- and disyllabic words and on the antepenult in words of three of four syllables. Affixes do not alter the stressed syllable.[10]

Morphophonology编辑

Certain suffixes (notably the illative -ti) cause a change in the end of the word to which it is attached:[11]

  • m assimilates to n before t: im + -tiinti ("in the eye")
  • l is elided before t: uwal + -tiuwati ("in the heart")
  • Voiced plosives are devoiced at the end of a word when the following word begins with a vowel or a voiceless consonant: enamb + fidanenamp fidan ("a road"), asang + ukasasank ukas ("a lot of sand").
  • an i is inserted between two consonant if the first is not l or a nasal: ev + -tieviti ("in the Sun"). With certain verbal suffixes an e is inserted: id + -ngoidengo ("is sleeping").
  • When a root with a final vowel has suffix or clitic attached to it that begins with a vowel, the first vowel is deleted: ne + -ana ("he eats").

Grammar编辑

Personal pronouns编辑

Fuyug has personal pronouns for three numbers (singular, dual, plural) but not gender distinction.

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st na da di
2nd nu ya yi
3rd hu tu mu

These pronouns can take four different suffixes: the genitive -l or -le, the emphatic -ni, the comitative -noy and the contrastive -v.[12]

Numerals编辑

Numerals in Fuyug are very restricted, having only fidan ("one") and yovalo ("two"). The numbers 3, 4 and 5 are composed of 1 and 2:

  • 3: yovalo hul mindan ("two its other")
  • 4: yovalo ta yovalo ("two and two") ;
  • 5: yovalo ta yovalo ta hul mindan ("two and two and its other").

After five English numerals are used (numbers less than five often do so as well). The quantifier英语Determiner huka ("a lot") is also used after three.[13]

參考來源编辑

  1. ^ Fuyug于《民族语》的链接(第18版,2015年)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Fuyug. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  3. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.2)
  4. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.14)
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Bradshaw 2007,p.17)
  6. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.18)
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Bradshaw 2007,p.15)
  8. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.16)
  9. ^ Bradshaw 2007,pp.21–24)
  10. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.24)
  11. ^ Bradshaw 2007,pp.24–27)
  12. ^ Bradshaw 2007,pp.39–41)
  13. ^ Bradshaw 2007,p.45)

外部連結编辑