^ 1.01.11.2In the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
^ 2.02.12.22.18.104.22.168.7To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t tʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d dʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [tʰ dʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [θð] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
^/ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill, e.g. zarā[zəɾaː] (ज़रा – ذرا 'little') versus well-trilled zarrā[zəraː] (ज़र्रा – ذرّہ 'particle').
^[v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
^/ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
^ 6.06.16.26.3/iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.