Help:印地語與烏爾都語國際音標

下表列舉了在維基條目中用天城文拼寫印地語烏爾都字母拼寫的烏爾都語內容如何使用國際音標發音。欲查看在条目中添加国际音标符号的指引,请见{{IPA-hns}}、{{IPA-hi}}及{{IPA-ur}}。

表格编辑

輔音
IPA[1] 印地文[1] ISO 15919 [1] 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
b ba ب butter
bha بھ abhor
d[2] da د the
[2] dha دھ within(dhh音,舌触及上腭,强烈呼气)
ja ج jazz
dʒʱ jha جھ hedgehog(强jhh音)
ɖ[2] ḍa ڈ gourd
ɖʱ[2] ḍha ڈھ adhere
f फ़ fa ف food
ɡ ga گ green
ɡʱ gha گھ big headed
ɣ ग़ ġa غ 类似法语r(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[ɡ] (ग))
ɦ ha ح head
j ya ی yak
k ka ک sky
kha کھ car
l la ل leaf
m ma م much
n na ن not
ɳ ṇa ن burn(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
ɲ ña ن 大致为canyon(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
ŋ ṅa ن bank(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
p pa پ sport
pha پھ pencil
q क़ qa ق quail(喉部k音,舌不触及上腭)(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[k] (क))
ɾ ra ر 美式英语butter(r可能为颤音[3])
r
ɽ ड़ ṛa ڑ gourd
ɽʱ ढ़ ṛha ڑھ [ɽ]h;有些类似美式英语warhead
s sa ث، س، ص sue
ʂ ṣa ش/س shrimp (主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[ʃ] (ش)或[s] (س))
ʃ śa ش shoe
t[2] ta ت، ط still
[2] tha تھ tip
ca چ catch
tʃʰ cha چھ choose
ʈ[2] ṭa ٹ carts
ʈʰ[2] ṭha ٹھ trip
ʋ[4] va و 介乎wv之间
x ख़ k͟ha خ Bach(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[kʰ] (ख))
z ज़ za ذ، ز، ض، ظ zen
ʒ श़ zha ژ pleasure
元音
IPA 印地文 ISO 15919 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
आ, पा ā آ, بَا far
ए, पे ē اے، بے Yale
ɛː ऐ, पै ai اَے، بَے hen
ə[5] अ, प a اَ، بَ strut
[6] ई, पी ī اِی، بِی feed
ɪ[6] इ, पि i اِ، بِ dill
ओ, पो ō او، بو story
ɔː औ, पौ au اَو، بَو dog
[6] ऊ, पू ū اُو، بُو moon
ʊ[6] उ, पु u اُ، بُ book
ɾɪ ऋ, पृ ری، پر 乌尔都语使用[r] (ر)
其他符號
IPA 印地文 ISO 15919 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
ˈ◌ 重音
(放在重读音节之前)
◌ː 辅音延长
(放在长辅音之后)h
◌̃ ـں 鼻化元音faun
[ãː, õː]等)

註釋编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 In the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t tʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d dʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [tʰ dʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [θ ð] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
  3. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill, e.g. zarā [zəɾaː] (ज़राذرا‎ 'little') versus well-trilled zarrā [zəraː] (ज़र्राذرّہ‎ 'particle').
  4. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
  5. ^ /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.