IPA[1] 印地文[1] ISO 15919 [1] 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
b ba ب butter
bha بھ abhor
d[2] da د the
[2] dha دھ within(dhh音,舌触及上腭,强烈呼气)
ja ج jazz
dʒʱ jha جھ hedgehog(强jhh音)
ɖ[2] ḍa ڈ gourd
ɖʱ[2] ḍha ڈھ adhere
f फ़ fa ف food
ɡ ga گ green
ɡʱ gha گھ big headed
ɣ ग़ ġa غ 类似法语r(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[ɡ] (ग))
ɦ ha ح head
j ya ی yak
k ka ک sky
kha کھ car
l la ل leaf
m ma م much
n na ن not
ɳ ṇa ن burn(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
ɲ ña ن 大致为canyon(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
ŋ ṅa ن bank(主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[n] (ن))
p pa پ sport
pha پھ pencil
q क़ qa ق quail(喉部k音,舌不触及上腭)(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[k] (क))
ɾ ra ر 美式英语butter(r可能为颤音[3])
ɽ ड़ ṛa ڑ gourd
ɽʱ ढ़ ṛha ڑھ [ɽ]h;有些类似美式英语warhead
s sa ث، س، ص sue
ʂ ṣa ش/س shrimp (主要为印地语;乌尔都语使用[ʃ] (ش)或[s] (س))
ʃ śa ش shoe
t[2] ta ت، ط still
[2] tha تھ tip
ca چ catch
tʃʰ cha چھ choose
ʈ[2] ṭa ٹ carts
ʈʰ[2] ṭha ٹھ trip
ʋ[4] va و 介乎wv之间
x ख़ k͟ha خ Bach(主要为乌尔都语;印地语有时替换为[kʰ] (ख))
z ज़ za ذ، ز، ض، ظ zen
ʒ श़ zha ژ pleasure
IPA 印地文 ISO 15919 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
आ, पा ā آ, بَا far
ए, पे ē اے، بے Yale
ɛː ऐ, पै ai اَے، بَے hen
ə[5] अ, प a اَ، بَ strut
[6] ई, पी ī اِی، بِی feed
ɪ[6] इ, पि i اِ، بِ dill
ओ, पो ō او، بو story
ɔː औ, पौ au اَو، بَو dog
[6] ऊ, पू ū اُو، بُو moon
ʊ[6] उ, पु u اُ، بُ book
ɾɪ ऋ, पृ ری، پر 乌尔都语使用[r] (ر)
IPA 印地文 ISO 15919 烏爾都文 英語近似發音
ˈ◌ 重音
◌ː 辅音延长
◌̃ ـں 鼻化元音faun
[ãː, õː]等)


  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 In the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t tʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d dʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [tʰ dʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [θ ð] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
  3. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill, e.g. zarā [zəɾaː] (ज़राذرا‎ 'little') versus well-trilled zarrā [zəraː] (ज़र्राذرّہ‎ 'particle').
  4. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
  5. ^ /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.