Help:土耳其語國際音標

下表显示了國際音標土耳其語的发音的方式。有关在维基百科文章中添加IPA字符的指南,请参见{{IPA-tr}}和维基百科:格式手册/音标 § Notes

请参阅土耳其语语音英语Turkish phonology,以更全面地了解土耳其語的发音。

辅音
IPA 举例 英语
近似发音
b 关于这个音频文件 bebek about
β 关于这个音频文件 vücut[1] 类似 vase, 但是用双唇
c 关于这个音频文件 şekil[2] skew
d 关于这个音频文件 madde ado
关于这个音频文件 ocak jump
f 关于这个音频文件 far food
ɡ 关于这个音频文件 gam[2] ago
ɟ 关于这个音频文件 gerçek[2] argue
h 关于这个音频文件 anahtar home
j 关于这个音频文件 hayat, eğri[3] yes
k 关于这个音频文件 kabak[2] score
l 关于这个音频文件 bilinç[4] late
ɫ 关于这个音频文件 kulak[2] tail
m 关于这个音频文件 cuma much
n 关于这个音频文件 nesne not
ɲ 关于这个音频文件 engin[5] canyon
ŋ 关于这个音频文件 yangın[6] wing
p 关于这个音频文件 pazar span
ɾ 关于这个音频文件 anahtarlar AmE atom
s 关于这个音频文件 sinek send
ʃ 关于这个音频文件 kişi shoe
t 关于这个音频文件 Türkçe stable
关于这个音频文件 çivi change
v 关于这个音频文件 çivi[1] vase
z 关于这个音频文件 pazar zone
ʒ 关于这个音频文件 jilet leisure
元音
IPA 举例 英语
近似发音
a 关于这个音频文件 kabak father
æ 关于这个音频文件 erkek[7] cat
e 关于这个音频文件 erkek bed
i 关于这个音频文件 çivi creek
o 关于这个音频文件 tokmak story
œ 关于这个音频文件 özgürlük 有点像 bird
u 关于这个音频文件 ruh soup
ɯ 关于这个音频文件 kış 有点像 roses
y 关于这个音频文件 Türkçe 有点像 cue
超音段
IPA 举例
ˈ torbalı [toɾbaˈɫɯ] '带包'
Torbalı [ˈtoɾbaɫɯ] (一个地名)[8]
ː â, î, û,[9] ğ[3] lan [oːˈɫan] 'boy'

Notes编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 /v/ surfaces as [β] when either preceded or followed by a rounded vowel (but not when intervocalic).
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 [c~k], [ɟ~ɡ], and [l~ɫ] contrast only in loanwords before â, û vs. a, u. In native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before front vowels ([æ, e, i, œ, y]) and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before back vowels ([a, o, u, ɯ]); word-finally or preconsonantally, [c, ɟ, l] occur after front vowels and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur after back vowels.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 In Turkish, the letter ğ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a g, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
  4. ^ [l] is more accurately described as palatalized postalveolar [ʎ̟], but it is conventionally transcribed with ⟨l⟩.
  5. ^ [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
  6. ^ [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
  7. ^ Allophone of /e/ before sonorants [l, m, n, ɾ] in the same syllable, and in the suffix -mez.
  8. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the second or third last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  9. ^ Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ˆ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter k represents [c], the letter g represents [ɟ] or the letter l represents [l] before back vowels [a] and [u].
    Yet the düzeltme işareti is used primarily to indicate palatalization, instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when it is pronounced as [kaˈtil], but it means "killer" when it is pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter a is left unmarked even if it is long because the sound /k/ does not become /c/ in this case.
    î is an exception, as it indicates only the vowel length.