- /v/ surfaces as [β] when either preceded or followed by a rounded vowel (but not when intervocalic).
- [c~k], [ɟ~ɡ], and [l~ɫ] contrast only in loanwords before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩. In native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before front vowels ([æ, e, i, œ, y]) and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before back vowels ([a, o, u, ɯ]); word-finally or preconsonantally, [c, ɟ, l] occur after front vowels and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur after back vowels.
- In Turkish, the letter ⟨ğ⟩ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
- in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
- in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
- if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
- in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
- [l] is more accurately described as palatalized postalveolar [ʎ̟], but it is conventionally transcribed with ⟨l⟩.
- [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
- [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
- Allophone of /e/ before sonorants [l, m, n, ɾ] in the same syllable, and in the suffix -mez.
- In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the second or third last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
- Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨ˆ⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents [c], the letter ⟨g⟩ represents [ɟ] or the letter ⟨l⟩ represents [l] before back vowels [a] and [u].
Yet the düzeltme işareti is used primarily to indicate palatalization, instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when it is pronounced as [kaˈtil], but it means "killer" when it is pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long because the sound /k/ does not become /c/ in this case.
⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it indicates only the vowel length.