Help:拉脱維亞話國際音標

音標 编辑

大多基於Nau, Nicole, Latvian, Lincom Europa: 66, 1998, ISBN 3-89586-228-2 

IPA 大約漢聲母
子音
p pipari [ˈpipːari], skābs [skaːps][1] 多數方言的幫母
b bāka [baːka][2] 閩南語「閩」
m man [man] 多數方言的明母
f fosfors [ˈfosfɔːrs][3] 官、粵非母
v vai [vai] 吳語「飯」
t tas [tas] 多數方言的端母
d diena [diɛna], atdarīt [ˈadːariːt][2] 吳語「甜」
n nav [naʊ] 多數方言的泥母
l lai [lai] 多數方言的來母
s suns [suns], mazs [masː][1] 多數方言的心母
z zināt [zinaːt] 潮州話「熱」
ts celts [tsælts], sods [suɔts][1] 多數方言的精母
dz dzimt [dzimt] 汕頭話「日」
ʃ seši [seʃi], mežs [meʃː][1] ship
ʒ daži [daʒi] 衢州話「床」
četri [t͡ʃetri] chop
ʃtʃ šķirt [ʃt͡ʃirt], lietišķs [liɛtiʃt͡ʃs] 英文fresh cheese
dai [dad͡ʒi] 衢州話「陳」
r "re kur!" [reˌkur] rolled r
c ķēķis [ceːcis] choose和skew間
ɟ ģērbt [ɟeːrpt] June和argue間
ɲ ņemt [ɲemt] 梅縣話上海話日母
ʎ ļoti [ʎuɔti] 部分英方言million
j jā [jaː] 多數方言的以母
k kāpt [kaːpt], smags [smaks][1] 多數方言的見母
ɡ gūt [guːt], ikdiena [ˈigdiɛna][2] 閩南語「五」、吳語「共」
ŋ bungas [buŋgas] 粵、吳「吳」
x heterohromija [ˈxeteroxrɔːmija][3] 官話「好」
IPA 大約漢韻母
單母音(漢語應該沒有分長短母音之方言,有「ː」者請拉長來讀、自行想像)
a dakša [dakʃa] 官、粵麻韻
pār [paːr]
æ (viņš) bed [bæd] 蘇州話「遙」
æː bēda [bæːda]
e bet [bet] 粵語「車」
ēst [eːst]
ɔ operācija [ˈɔpːeraːtsija][4] 粵語科韻
ɔː opera [ɔːpera][4]
i viss [visː] 官、粵「衣」
vīst [viːst]
u un [un] 官、粵「烏」
būt [buːt]
雙母音[5]
ai tai [tai][6] 官、粵「拜」
au tauta [tauta] 官、粵肴韻
ɛi vei [vɛi][6] 官、粵微韻
ɛu tev [tɛu], Eugēnija [ˈɛugeːnija][7] 粵語「掉」白讀
oi ahoi [aˈhɔi][6][8] 粵語開韻
ɔu boulings [bɔuliŋks] 粵語「煲」
diena [diɛna] 官、粵「耶」
iu pliukšķis [pliukʃt͡ʃis][8] 粵語宵韻
lolojot [luɔluɔjuɔt][4] 官「我」、粵「禾」
ui fui [fui][6] 粵語灰韻
元音間隙
. 分隔不是雙母音的母音簇:neilgs [ˈne.ilks],triumfs [ˈtri.umfs],neieiet [ˈne.iɛ.iɛt]
重音
ˈ 重音(幾乎都在字詞首音節且用萬國音標標示拉脫維亞話時可省略)
長子音
ː 長母音或長子音(只限響音

另見 编辑

参考 编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Before the masculine ending -s, voiced consonants are devoiced: smags[smaks]. The -s is assimilated after a devoiced fricative, producing a long consonant: mazs[masː] and mežs[meʃː]. Devoicing also occurs in compounds: labprātīgs[ˈlapːraːtiːks] or [ˈlapˌpraːtiːks].
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 An unvoiced consonant, in a compound, followed by a voiced consonant becomes voiced: atdarīt[ˈadːariːt] or [ˈadˌdariːt].
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 [f] and [x] occur only in loanwords.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 The letter ⟨o⟩ in Latvian orthography usually represents the diphthong [uɔ]): Lithuanian nuoma and Latvian noma. [ɔ] and its long counterpart, [ɔː], occur only in loanwords.
  5. ^ DIVSKAŅI. [24 February 2024]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 In closed syllables, [ai], [ɛi], [oi], and [ui] may be transcribed as vowel-glide sequences: tais [tajs], veikt [vɛjkt], boikots [bɔjkɔts], and muita [mujta].
  7. ^ Only in loanwords and onomatopoeiatic words or as the result of vocalization in open syllables of [v].
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Only in loanwords or onomatopoeiatic words.