- Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ/, [b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, ts, tʃ, k, c, s, ʃ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/. [v] also occurs as an allophone of /f/ in the same environment.
- Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ/, [c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ/ unless the following word beings with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, when they are realized as voiced [ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ].
- The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, ʊ̯] are allophones of a single/v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
• [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʃ, s, ʃ, x/;
• [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/;
•[ʊ̯] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [ʊ̯]) occur in the syllable coda;
• [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374頁)).
- The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which /ʎ/ merges with /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374頁)).
- Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Before velar consonants they are [ŋ], and before labial consonants they are [m]; the labiodental [ɱ]appears before /f/ and /v/. Orthographic ⟨n⟩ before ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩ is rare and is confined mostly to loanwords.
- In the majority of cases only one long vowel per word may occur. The phonemic diphthongs /ɪ̯a, ɪ̯ɛ, ɪ̯u, ʊ̯ɔ/ count as long vowels - compare the adjectives beliansky [ˈbɛlɪ̯anski] and bratislavský [ˈbratislaʊ̯skiː]. In the latter word, there is a phonetic diphthong [aʊ̯], which is analyzed phonetically as a sequence of /a/ and /v/.
- /æ/ often merges with /ɛ/.
- Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke, Slovak (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2010, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
- Kráľ, Ábel, Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo, 1988
- Pavlík, Radoslav, Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 2004, 55: 87–109