Help:斯洛伐克語國際音標

下表提供在维基百科条目中以國際音標表示斯洛伐克语读音的方法。欲查看在条目中添加国际音标符号的指引,请见{{IPA-sk}}。更详细的发音信息可参见斯洛伐克语音系英语Slovak phonology

辅音
IPA 示例 英语中的近似发音
b b, vstup do[1] bill
c radosť, loď[2] skew
d domov, prvýkrát bolo[1] door
dz dz, noc bez[1] heads
bán, cárovič bol[1] job
f farba, vták[3] focus
ɡ garáž, kde[1] go
ɦ hlava ahead
j jogurt yellow
ɟ ďaleko, byť zaradený[1] job有些相似
k koláč, ping-pong[2] cold
l láska[4] pill
vlk little
l̩ː vĺča little left(长音)
ʎ ľad[4] failure
m maslo, hanba[5] milk
ɱ informácia[5] comfort
n noc[5] now
ɲ laň canyon
ŋ banka[5] sing
p pavúk, dub[2] spill
r robot 类似美式英语中的hottest
prst
r̩ː vŕba perro西班牙语
s slnko, mráz[2] six
ʃ šach, ž[2] shell
t tulipán, hlad[2] stand
ts cena, jedz[2] bats
človek, [2] chase
v vzrast,[3] Adolf bol[1] vine
ʋ sever[3] 介于vinewine之间
x chlieb, sneh loch苏格兰英语
z zima, ananás bol[1] zoo
ʒ žena, Aleš bol[1] fusion
元音[6]
IPA 示例 英语中的近似发音
單元音
a matka art
ráno father
æ mäso[7] bat
ɛ drevo left
ɛː fén bed
i tri, syr kit
písať, výr leave
ɔ dom off
ɔː móda dog
u ruža bull
úroda food
半元音
ʊ̯ pravda, krv,[3] Tatrou wine
双元音
ɪ̯a piaty young
ɪ̯ɛ viera yes
ɪ̯u vyššiu use
ʊ̯ɔ stôl water
 
其他符号
IPA 示例 说明
ˈ Revúca [ˈrɛʋuːtsa] 主重音一般在单词的第一个音节上

注释编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ/, [b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, ts, tʃ, k, c, s, ʃ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/. [v] also occurs as an allophone of /f/ in the same environment.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ/, [c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ/ unless the following word beings with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, when they are realized as voiced [ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ].
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, ʊ̯] are allophones of a single/v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
    [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʃ, s, ʃ, x/;
    [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/;
    [ʊ̯] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [ʊ̯]) occur in the syllable coda;
    [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374頁)).
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which /ʎ/ merges with /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374頁)).
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Before velar consonants they are [ŋ], and before labial consonants they are [m]; the labiodental [ɱ]appears before /f/ and /v/. Orthographic n before p and b is rare and is confined mostly to loanwords.
  6. ^ In the majority of cases only one long vowel per word may occur. The phonemic diphthongs /ɪ̯a, ɪ̯ɛ, ɪ̯u, ʊ̯ɔ/ count as long vowels - compare the adjectives beliansky [ˈbɛlɪ̯anski] and bratislavský [ˈbratislaʊ̯skiː]. In the latter word, there is a phonetic diphthong [aʊ̯], which is analyzed phonetically as a sequence of /a/ and /v/.
  7. ^ /æ/ often merges with /ɛ/.

参考文献编辑