Help:阿勒曼尼语国际音标

下列图表展示了国际音标(IPA)在维基百科条目中表示阿勒曼尼语发音的方式。对于有关在维基百科条目中添加IPA字符的指南,请参见{{IPA-gsw}}与Wikipedia:格式手册/音标 § Notes.

请参阅阿勒曼尼语音系以更全面地了解阿勒曼尼语的发音。

注:

  • 没有一种阿勒曼尼语方言使用本指南中的所有音。
  • 每个例词都有其来源的方言名称的标签。
  • 大部分例句来自苏黎世方言
  • 大多数阿勒曼尼亚方言不常被书写,因此没有正式的拼写。为了保持一致性,本指南使用由Dieth & Schmid-Cadalbert (1986).[1]提出的瑞士德语拼写惯例。

请参阅伯尔尼德语音系以了解更多关于阿勒曼尼语方言之一的发音。

辅音
IPA 示例 英语及其他语言里的相同或近似发音
Huube [ˈhuːb̥ə] '女帽' (苏黎世,ZH)[2] bare
ç Kicha [ˈkʰɪçɐ] '厨房' (上施瓦本) hew[3]
Lade [ˈlɒd̥ə] '商店' (ZH)[2] dart
f offe [ˈofə] '打开' (瓦莱,VS) foot
offe [ˈofːə] '打开' (伯尔尼,BE) staff function
ɡ̊ haage [ˈhɒːɡ̊ə] '用栅栅围' (ZH)[2] go
ɣ̊ mache [ˈmɒɣ̊ə] '做' (ZH)[2][4] 苏格兰英语 loch
ʁ̥ mache [ˈmɒʁ̥ə] '做' (ZH)[2][4]
h Hand [hɒnd̥] '手' (ZH) hat
j Jaar [jɒːr] '年' (ZH) you
k Egge [ˈekə] '边缘' (巴塞尔,BS) scan
Egge [ˈɛkːə] '边缘' (BE) scan
Kind [kʰind̥] '孩子' (BS)[5] cone
kx hocke [ˈhokxə] '坐' (ZH)[4] 考克尼口音 cake
hocke [ˈhoqχə] '坐' (ZH)[4]
l maale [ˈmɒːlə] '画' (ZH) lover
ller [ˈmylːər] '磨坊工人' (ZH) real life
ɫ lt [ˈʋæɫt] '世界' (萨嫩兰) build
ɫː alli [ˈaɫːi] '全部' (萨嫩兰) real life
m zaame [ˈtsɒːmə] '驯服' (ZH) mood
Hammer [ˈhamːər] '锤子' (BE) film-maker
n zaane [ˈtsɒːnə] '长牙齿' (ZH) noon
Sunne [ˈz̥ʊnːə] '太阳' (BE) cleanness
ŋ Zange [ˈtsɒŋə] '钳子' (ZH) ring
ŋː Zange [ˈtsaŋːə] '钳子' (BE) ring, but longer
p huupe [ˈhuːpə] '鸣响' (BS) span
öppe [ˈœpːə] '大约' (BE) span
Pack [pʰɒkx] '包裹' (ZH)[5] pole
pf Soipfe [ˈz̥oi̯pfə] '肥皂' (ZH) cupfull
r faare [ˈv̥ɒːrə] '驾驶' (ZH)[6] 美国英语 water
cheerren [ˈxeːrːən] '扫' (哈斯利谷)[6] 意大利语 burro
ʀ faare [ˈv̥ɒːʀə] '驾驶' (ZH)[6] 法语 frere 或 诺森布里亚粗喉音
ʁ faare [ˈv̥ɒːʁə] '驾驶' (ZH)[6]
ʁ̥ besser [ˈb̥esʁ̥] '更好' (BS)[6] 苏格兰英语 loch
ʕ ändard [ˈend̥aʕd̥] '改变' (SWG)[7] 标准英音 ahead,但咽部收紧
s hasse [ˈhɑsə] '憎恨' (VS) soon
hasse [ˈhasːə] '憎恨' (BE) class size
ʃ tüüsche [ˈtyːʃə] '交换' (VS) ship
ʃː Äsche [ˈæʃːə] '灰烬' (BE) cash shortage
t Latte [ˈlɑtə] '板条' (BS) stand
Latte [ˈlatːə] '板条' (BE) stand
Thee [tʰeː] '茶' (ZH)[5] too
ts butze [ˈb̥utsə] '擦' (ZH) cats
tsche [ˈtætʃə] '拍打' (ZH) chip
Ofe [ˈov̥ə] '炉子' (ZH)[2] foot
ʋ Wand [ʋɒnd̥] '墙' (ZH) winevine 之间
ʋː niww [niʋː] '新的' (Haslital) winevine 之间
w Giel [ɡ̊iə̯w] '男孩' (BE)[8] wine
Balle [ˈb̥awːə] '球' (BE)[9] 近似 bowwow
x Chatz [ˈxɑts] '猫' (Simmental)[4] 苏格兰英语 loch
lache [ˈlaxːə] '笑' (锡默河谷)[4] 苏格兰英语 loch, but longer
χ Chatz [ˈχɑts] '猫' (BE)[4] 苏格兰英语 loch
χː lache [ˈlaχːə] '笑' (BE)[4] 苏格兰英语 loch,但更长
Hase [ˈhɒz̥ə] '野兔' (ZH)[2] soon
ʒ̊ nuusche [ˈnuːʒ̊ə] '翻找' (ZH)[2] ship
元音
IPA 示例 英语及其他语言里的相同或近似发音
a Affe [ˈafːə] '猿' (圣加仑,SG)[10] art
schlaaffe [ˈʒ̊laːfə] '睡觉' (SG)[10] father
ɑ Affe [ˈɑfːə] '猿' (BE)[10] art
ɑː schlaaffe [ˈʒ̊lɑːfə] '睡觉' (BE)[10] father
ɒ Mane [ˈmɒnə] '人' (ZH)[10] 标准英音 hot
ɒː maane [ˈmɒːnə] '提醒' (ZH)[10] 标准英音 nod
æ gäll [ɡ̊æl] '不是吗?' (ZH) hat
æː gääl [ɡ̊æːl] '黄' (ZH) had
e Bett [ˈb̥et] '床' (ZH) 苏格兰英语 late
deene [ˈd̥eːnə] '伸展' (ZH) 苏格兰英语 day
ɛ Hèr [hɛr] '先生' (ZH) bet
ɛː hèèr [hɛːr] '来自' (ZH) bed
ə schwèche [ˈʒ̊ʋɛxə] '使变弱' (ZH)[11] about
i sibe [ˈz̥ib̥ə] '七' (ZH) leaf
siibe [ˈz̥iːb̥ə] '筛' (ZH) leave
ɪ Rìtter [ˈrɪtər] '骑士' (BE) kit
ɪː Rììs [rɪːz̥] '巨人' (BE) kid
ɔ Òfe [ˈɔv̥ə] '炉子' (BE) off
ɔː Gòòfe [ˈɡ̊ɔːv̥ə] '孩子' (BE) dog
o hole [ˈholə] '取' (ZH) 苏格兰英语 oak
hool [hoːl] '洞' (ZH) 苏格兰英语 stove
ø Böge [ˈb̥øɡ̊ə] '纸张' (ZH) 近似 nurse
œ Blö̀ff [b̥lœf] '吓唬' (ZH)
øː Böögge [ˈb̥øːkə] '傻瓜' (ZH) 近似 fur
œː tö̀ö̀rfe [ˈtœːrfə] '被允许' (ZH)
u Bruch [b̥rux] '打破' (ZH) boot
Bruuch [b̥ruːɣ̊] '习惯' (ZH) food
ʉː Muus [mʉːs] '老鼠' (BS)[12] 现代标准英音 goose
ʊ Schùtt [ʒ̊ʊt] '残骸' (BE) foot
ʊː Brùùch [b̥rʊːɣ̊] '打破' (BE) good
y Füli [ˈv̥yli] '钢笔' (ZH) 近似 cute
ʏ hǜtt [hʏt] '今天' (BE)
Füüli [ˈv̥yːli] '懒惰' (ZH) 近似 feud
ʏː Tǜǜre [ˈtʏːrə] '门' (BE)
半元音
IPA 示例 英语近似发音
nia [nia̯] '永不' (SWG) 近似 ear
æ̯ niä [niæ̯] '永不' (UR)
ə̯ nie [niə̯] '永不' (ZH)
frei [v̥rei̯] '自由的' (ZH) day 中的似y尾音
Chüo [xyo̯] '奶牛' (VS) go 中的似w尾音
äu [æu̯] '也' (ZH)
vlöüge [ˈv̥lœy̑ɡ̊ə] '飞' (萨嫩兰) 近似 go 中的似w尾音
超音段音位
IPA 示例 解释
ˈ deene [ˈd̥eːnə] '伸展' (ZH) 主重音,如 deer /ˈdɪər/
ˌ Hèrdöpfel [ˈhɛrˌd̥øpfəl] '马铃薯' (ZH) 次重音,如 commandeer /ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/

注释编辑

  1. ^ Cited in Fleischer & Schmid (2006:251頁)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Some scholars choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents with the symbols ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩, rather than ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩. In that case, the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨pː, tː, kː, xː, sː, ʃː⟩ or ⟨pp, tt, kk, xx, ss, ʃʃ⟩, rather than ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Here, we choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents as ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩, whereas the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Long fortis obstruents or geminates occur in most of Switzerland except for the extreme Northeast, Wallis, and the Grisons–St. Gall Rhine valley.
  3. ^ If pronounced different from yew, cf. yew–hew merger.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 The dorsal obstruents /kx, x, ɣ̊/ are realized as velar [kx, x, ɣ̊] or uvular [, χ, ʁ̥], depending on the dialect.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 The aspirated consonants [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] occur in borrowings from Standard German (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244頁)). In the dialects of Basel and Chur, an aspirated [kʰ] is also present in native words.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 The /r/ phoneme can be pronounced as an alveolar trill [r] or an alveolar tap [ɾ] (with both being transcribed with ⟨r⟩ in this guide for the sake of simplicity),, a uvular trill [ʀ], a voiced uvular fricative or approximant [ʁ], a voiceless lenis uvular fricative [ʁ̥]. Some dialects (e.g. Zürich German) use all six realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244頁)).
  7. ^ In Swabian German, /r/ is realized as a uvular approximant [ʁ̞] in syllable onset, but as a pharyngeal approximant [ʕ̞] in other positions (Markus Hiller. Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality (PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. ). For simplicity, we transcribe these sounds as, respectively, [ʁ] and [ʕ].
  8. ^ In Bernese German, /l/ in the syllable coda is realized as [w].
  9. ^ In Bernese German, the geminate /lː/ is realized as [].
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 The open vowels /a, aː/ can be front or central (with both sets transcribed as [a, ] for simplicity), back unrounded [ɑ, ɑː] or back rounded [ɒ, ɒː], depending on the dialect.
  11. ^ The schwa /ə/ occurs only in unstressed syllables.
  12. ^ In Basel German and in the dialect of Markgräflerland, /uː/ is fronted to [ʉː].

文献编辑

  • Dauwalder, Hans, Wie mma s seid und cha schriiben. Eine haslideutsche Kurzgrammatik, Meiringen: Gemeinnütziger Verein, 1992 
  • Dieth, Eugen; Schmid-Cadalbert, Christian, Schwyzertütschi Dialäktschrift. Dieth-Schreibung 2nd, Aarau: Sauerländer, 1986 
  • Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan, 苏黎世德语 (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2006, 36 (2): 243–253, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441 
  • Hotzenköcherle, Rudolf (编), Sprachatlas der deutschen Schweiz, Bern: Francke, 1962–1997 
  • Werlen, Iwar, Lautstrukturen des Dialekts von Brig im schweizerischen Kanton Wallis, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1977 
  • Marti, Werner, Berndeutsch-Grammatik, Bern: Francke, 1985, ISBN 3-7720-1587-5