^ 2.02.12.22.220.127.116.11.7Some scholars choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents with the symbols ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩, rather than ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩. In that case, the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨pː, tː, kː, xː, sː, ʃː⟩ or ⟨pp, tt, kk, xx, ss, ʃʃ⟩, rather than ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Here, we choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents as ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩, whereas the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Long fortis obstruents or geminates occur in most of Switzerland except for the extreme Northeast, Wallis, and the Grisons–St. Gall Rhine valley.
^ 5.05.15.2The aspirated consonants [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] occur in borrowings from Standard German (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244頁)). In the dialects of Basel and Chur, an aspirated [kʰ] is also present in native words.
^ 6.06.16.26.36.4The /r/ phoneme can be pronounced as an alveolar trill [r] or an alveolar tap [ɾ] (with both being transcribed with ⟨r⟩ in this guide for the sake of simplicity),, a uvular trill [ʀ], a voiced uvular fricative or approximant [ʁ], a voiceless lenis uvular fricative [ʁ̥]. Some dialects (e.g. Zürich German) use all six realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244頁)).
^In Swabian German, /r/ is realized as a uvular approximant [ʁ̞] in syllable onset, but as a pharyngeal approximant [ʕ̞] in other positions (Markus Hiller. Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality(PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache.). For simplicity, we transcribe these sounds as, respectively, [ʁ] and [ʕ].
^In Bernese German, /l/ in the syllable coda is realized as [w].
^In Bernese German, the geminate /lː/ is realized as [wː].
^ 10.010.110.210.310.410.5The open vowels /a, aː/ can be front or central (with both sets transcribed as [a, aː] for simplicity), back unrounded [ɑ, ɑː] or back rounded [ɒ, ɒː], depending on the dialect.
^The schwa /ə/ occurs only in unstressed syllables.