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薩德伯里微中子觀測站實驗室

(重定向自SNOLAB
薩德伯里中微子觀測站實驗室地面建築。

薩德伯里中微子觀測站實驗室SNOLAB,簡稱為「薩實驗室」)是位於加拿大安大略省薩德伯里2100米深的矿中的地下物理實驗室。原本位於此處的薩德伯里微中子觀測站(Sudbury Neutrino Observatory,縮寫為SNO)實驗計畫已結束,但其設施已被擴張成為永久物理實驗室。

薩實驗室乃是全世界在地下比較深處的幾個實驗設施之一。在地下2316米深處果拉爾金礦的粒子實驗英语Particle experiments at Kolar Gold Fields因礦場關閉而於1992年終止運作。[1][2]正在計畫中的DUSEL英语Sanford Underground Research Facility實驗室也已大幅度縮減,由於國家科學基金會拒絕負擔主要開支。[3]2010年開始運作的中国锦屏地下实验室在那時是全世界最深的地下實驗室,緲子通量低於0.2 μ/m²/day ,[4]薩實驗室的緲子通量為0.27 μ/m²/day。[5] (與之相比,在海平面,緲子通量大約為15 million μ/m²/day。)

雖然與礦坑相連通,實驗室本身維持於級別2000標準的潔淨室狀況,即尺寸不小於1μm的粒子少於2000個每1 m3空氣,背景輻射也很低.在其上方有2070 m石頭,約6010 米水當量英语meter water equivalent(MWE)的屏蔽,足可擋去大部分的宇宙射線,是設置高靈敏度英语sensitivity (electronics)與超低計數率實驗夢寐以求的良好環境。[5]

歷史编辑

薩實驗已獲得重大成功,並且展示出地下深處物理實驗室的寶貴價值,很多基礎物理問題都可以從在地下深處完成的物理實驗獲得答案,例如,在太陽內部進行核融合的狀況、中微子的質量、暗物質的探測等等重要問題。2002年,加拿大創新基金會英语Canada Foundation for Innovation批准,將薩觀測站擴張成為一所永久性世界級實驗研究中心,[6]該實驗室分別又在2007年與2008年獲得更多資金。[7][8]

實驗编辑

 
2014年,正在安裝中的DEAP-3600探測器。

在薩實驗室裏,主要有六個正在進行的物理實驗: [9][10]:2

現在(2015年),還有四個實驗項目正在興建中: [9]

另有五個實驗項目已按計畫圓滿達成目標,現已關閉運作:

薩實驗室正在考慮添加更多實驗計畫,例如,下一代冨集氙觀測站英语Enriched Xenon Observatory(nEXO)[27][28]:16、探索無中微子雙貝他衰變眼鏡蛇實驗英语COBRA experiment[29]:27、發展圓球形氣體探測器來探測暗物質的新圓球實驗英语New Experiments With Spheres(NEWS)[30]。薩實驗室計畫興建一個更大的PICO-250L氣泡室 [10]:44

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Naba K. Mondal. Status of India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) (PDF). Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad. January 2004, 70 (1): 71–77 [2007-08-28]. 
  2. ^ M. R. Krishnaswamy; 等. The Kolar Gold Fields Neutrino Experiment. II. Atmospheric Muons at a Depth of 7000 hg cm-2 (Kolar). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 6 July 1971, 323 (1555): 511–522. JSTOR 78071. 
  3. ^ Pitlick, Wendy, DUSEL no more, Black Hills Pioneer, 2011-07-15 [2012-11-26], Lesko said the scaled back plans boil down to just one underground research campus. Originally, lab officials planned to build a major surface campus, a science campus 4,850 feet underground that included two lab modules, and a smaller lab module campus 7,400 feet underground. The Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lesko said, focuses on building just one campus at the 4,850-foot level that will host experiments in dark matter, double beta decay, and long baseline neutrino research. 
  4. ^ WU Yu-Cheng; 等, Measurement of Cosmic Ray Flux in China JinPing underground Laboratory, Chinese Physics C, August 2013, 37 (8), Bibcode:2013ChPhC..37h6001W, arXiv:1305.0899, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/37/8/086001 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 SNOLAB User’s Handbook Rev. 2 (PDF): 13, 2006-06-26 [2013-02-01] 
  6. ^ Canada selects 9 projects to lead in international research (新闻稿). Canada Foundation for Innovation. 2002-06-20 [2007-09-21]. 
  7. ^ Province Supports Expansion of World's Deepest Lab Administered by Carleton University (新闻稿). Carleton University. 2007-08-21 [2007-09-21]. (原始内容存档于2012-08-18). 
  8. ^ New Funding will Support Underground Lab Operations as SNOLAB nears Completion (PDF) (新闻稿). SNOLAB. 2008-01-18 [2008-02-26]. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 SNOLAB: Current experiments
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Noble, Tony. Dark Matter Physics at SNOLAB and Future Prospects (PDF). Fourth International Workshop for the Design of the ANDES Underground Laboratory. 2014-01-31. 
  11. ^ Home Page. Helium and Lead Observatory. 
  12. ^ DAMIC now running at SNOLAB, 2012-12-10 [2013-05-13] 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Alvaro Chavarria; 等. DAMIC at SNOLAB. 2014. arXiv:1407.0347. 
  14. ^ COUPP-60 Up and Running at SNOLAB, 2013-05-03 [2013-05-13] 
  15. ^ PICO-2L now running at SNOLAB!. 2013-11-04. 
  16. ^ PICO experiment: PICO 60. [2015-08-17]. 
  17. ^ Field, Louisa. Biggest dark matter detector lies in wait for antisocial WIMPs. New Scientist (3108). 23 April 2015. At the end of April, it will join other underground detectors worldwide in the race to find dark matter. 
  18. ^ Walding, Joseph, The DEAP-3600 Dark Matter Experiment, IOP 2013: High Energy and Astrop Particle Physics, Institute of Physics: 3, 2013-04-10 [2013-05-19] 
  19. ^ SNO+. SNOLAB. 
  20. ^ Keith Rielage; 等. Update on the MiniCLEAN Dark Matter Experiment. 2014. arXiv:1403.4842. 
  21. ^ Second generation dark matter experiment coming to SNOLAB (新闻稿). SNOLAB. 2014-07-18 [2014-09-18]. 
  22. ^ Saab, Tarek, The SuperCDMS Dark Matter Search, SLAC Summer Institute 2012 (PDF), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2012-08-01 [2012-11-28] 
  23. ^ http://www-coupp.fnal.gov
  24. ^ E. Behnke; 等, First dark matter search results from a 4-kg CF3I bubble chamber operated in a deep underground site, Phys. Rev. D, September 2012, 86 (5): 052001–052009, Bibcode:2012PhRvD..86e2001B, arXiv:1204.3094, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.86.052001, FERMILAB-PUB-12-098-AD-AE-CD-E-PPD 
  25. ^ Dark matter Experiment with Argon and Pulse-shape discrimination. DEAP-1. 
  26. ^ Smith, Nigel. Advanced Instrumentation Techniques in SNOLAB (PDF). 2015 Canadian Association of Physicists Congress. 17 June 2015. 
  27. ^ Sinclair, David. The SNOLAB Science Programme (PDF). 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics. Asilomar, California. 12 September 2013 [2014-11-21]. 
  28. ^ Pocar, Andrea. Searching for neutrino-less double beta decay with EXO-200 and nEXO (PDF). Neutrino Oscillation Workshop. Otranto. 8 September 2014 [2015-01-10]. 
  29. ^ Smith, Nigel J.T., Infrastructure Development for underground labs—SNOLAB experience (PDF), 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics, Asilomar, California, 2013-09-08 
  30. ^ NEWS: New Experiments With Spheres. [2015-08-16]. 

外部連結编辑

坐标46°28.3′N 81°11.2′W / 46.4717°N 81.1867°W / 46.4717; -81.1867 (SNOLAB surface building)