User:-Zest/妹妹/黑咲芽亞

給蘭蘭,黑格爾的絕對和康德的絕對,絕對不可搞混兩個絕對,絕對並非絕對不是絕對,但絕對絕對不等同於絕對


梵语:美好的意思)在一天的四個時段,由七顆星星旋轉圍繞北斗七星小熊座旁邊的極星,形成圍繞中心的卐字。這個卐字標誌和所提到的星座都是從遠古時期和世界許多文化中都知道的,代表了絕對的現實原則,即宇宙神 (一神教)[注 1]


哲学形上學宗教靈性和其他情境中,絕對是最存有的,絕對被設想為自己超驗英语transcendence (philosophy)或領會於任何事物

人們對這些「絕對」事物有一些基本認知,而有些想法並產生意見分歧,究竟絕對是什麼、什麼不是。例如,一些哲學家認為,最真實的存在是[3]一些泛神論哲學家認為,最真實的存在是一種非人格化的存在,如現實意識。其他哲學家(如长青哲学)認為這些類似的概念指向絕對現實的現實是一樣的[4][5]無神論不可知論泛自然神論[6]哲學家則可能認為数学性质[7]、或自然法則例如重力本質就是最真實的。[8]

絕對的三個概念编辑

 
美索不达米亚楔形文字表意符號An或者Dingir、"Divine"。由中心放射如同噴泉般[注 2]

絕對的基本概念就是絕對現實的現實,其中有三個構思它的基本脈絡(概念)。(1)最先和最偉大的存在(2)不是一個人,而是「存在的」(3)是存在和存在的基礎。

在概念(1)中,絕對是最真實和可理解的現實。 它可以說和知道。 例如格奥尔格·威廉·弗里德里希·黑格尔的絕對精神[注 3]:最真實的現實。有說服力的、存在的透過理解包括人、國家和世界歷史在內的一切,客觀思考世界。[11]
在概念(2)中

the Absolute might be conceived of as utterly outside of all other reality and hence unintelligible. It cannot be known or spoken about. Plato's Socrates says that "The Form of the Good" is "beyond being",[12] implying that it is even beyond thought, language, and normal categories of existence. St. 十字若望 says:

He who truly arrives there

cuts free from himself;

all that he knew before

now seems worthless,

and his knowledge so soars

that he is left in unknowing

transcending all knowledge.[13]

In (3) the Absolute might be conceived of as transcending duality and distinction. This concept of a fundamental reality that transcends or includes all other reality is usually (but not always) associated with divinity. While this conception initially seems contradictory, it has been highly influential. One way to understand this third conception is to consider the Tao te Ching.

The Tao that can be spoken is not the eternal Tao.

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.("老子 (書)," 1)

These opening lines distinguish between two Taos. One is the "eternal Tao" (which cannot be named or explained) and the other "Tao" seems to exist in space and time (and can be named and explained). The eternal Tao is beyond existence and cannot be named or fully understood, while the other Tao exists and can be known. The eternal Tao is infinite; the other is finite. The eternal Tao is formless; the other is formed. The eternal Tao is transcendent; the other is immanent. The other "Tao" is an attempt to describe the "eternal Tao" in human terms; but such effort can never express the eternal Tao fully. He continues:

The nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth

The named is the mother of myriad things

Thus, constantly without desire, one observes its essence

Constantly with desire, one observes its manifestations

These two emerge together but differ in name

The unity is said to be the mystery.

In these lines, he further discusses the difference between the two Taos. The eternal Tao is "nameless" and is the origin of Heaven and Earth; this "origin" can be understood as an underlying metaphysics that cannot be described fully. The "named" Tao, on the other hand, is able to describe specific phenomenons that exist in space and time, hence it is the mother of myriad of things; it also can be treated as the humanly conceived concepts in the effort to describe our physical world. Later, he points out that both the "named" and the "nameless" emerge together from the same eternal Tao. This seemingly self-contradictory unity, of course, is said to be the "mystery" to be understood.

比较神话学的絕對觀念编辑

絕對的三個概念中的一個或多個可以衍伸到其他宗教或哲學。以下是一些個領域關於絕對的概念表象:

絕對的解釋编辑

雖然這些絕對的概念上是相似的,但一些哲學家,特別是長青主義哲學家和泛神論哲學家廣泛的認為絕對的解釋在時間、空間、現代/過去、地點上都具有相似的重要意義,不只是單詞上的解釋,在文化上也具有「絕對」的相同含意。

然而,其他哲學家認為,這些概念是不一樣的[14][15] ,例如邏各斯是理性和規律的,而婆羅門是無形的和非常理的;[[[柏拉图主义]]的四主德英语Form of Good是個人的理性觀點;又或者布拉德利英语F._H._Bradley的絕對是一個有概念的經驗,而布蘭夏德英语Brand_Blanshard的絕對是一個無意識的而能理解的系統。 諸如約翰希克英语John_Hick這樣的長青主義哲學家認為,即使這些概念略有不同,不同概念背後的絕對現實的現實是一樣的。[16]

在宗教傳統的絕對编辑

Philosophers such as 阿迪·商羯罗 denied the Absolute any personal sense, whereas philosophers such as Ramanuja英语Ramanuja and Madhvacharya英语Madhvacharya, tended to identify the Absolute with a 自在. The Traditionalist School英语Traditionalist School, via Frithjof Schuon英语Frithjof Schuon, admits:

It is true that God as creator, revealer, and savior is not to be identified with the Absolute as such; it is likewise true that God in Himself, in the full depth of His reality, is not to be reduced to the creative Function.[17]

Early Hinduism identified with 梵天, 毗湿奴, and 湿婆. The same immortal spirit was conceived of as functional in the world in three ways: creation, preservation, and destruction.[18] There was therefore no real contradiction between Bhakti英语Bhakti and , although the latter was sometimes conceived of as "purer."[19]

濕婆教, and most 一神論 Indian religions gave God five functions: creation, preservation, destruction, concealment, and revelation. 湿婆, as , would therefore act in the world as a personal God. Yet this distinction between the Absolute and Infinite, or Transcendent and Immanent is not entirely, in itself, absolute. Philosophers like Shankara, believe that upon doing away with 摩耶 (印度哲学), the entire universe disappears, including the notion of a personal God. Philosophers such as Madhva and Ramanuja, tend to propound an identification of the Absolute with God, whereas later philosophers such as Nimbarka and 柴坦尼亚·摩诃巴布, tended to identify the Absolute with a personal form of God (黑天). Either way, all these claims, taken in context, tend to prove non-contradictory.

The quote above, via Schuon, is actually fully represented within the 印度教 tradition. 梵天, the creator god, is not worshiped within Hinduism. The only deities that are worshiped, are 湿婆, and 毗湿奴. Both Shiva and Vishnu, by their respective devotees, are represented as having power over the following five functions: creation, preservation, destruction, concealment, and revelation. However, a further distinction is made by Shankara: God is not (the Absolute). Rather the appearance of God is still via the power of 摩耶 (印度哲学). So there are in effect, three levels, which Schuon himself observes: Brahman (the Absolute), God as creator, revealer, and savior (AKA, Shiva or Vishnu), and finally God as creator (AKA, Brahma). Incidental reasons are given for Brahma's lack of worship, a Hindu myth attributes this situation to a curse by Bhrigu英语Bhrigu. Devdutt Pattanaik英语Devdutt Pattanaik, an Indian author, gives some philosophical reasons. Ultimately the reason is actually inherent ("inherent" in the Absolute) and theological.

人性關係的絕對编辑

Laozi taught that the Tao was not only the ultimate reality but the ideal of human life. Another conceptual similarity between various conceptions is that the ultimate reality also somehow reveals to humans the way to live. For example, Plato taught that the Good was both the source of reality, the highest object of knowledge, and the ultimate end of desire.

Literature scholar C·S·路易斯 explains the connection between the highest reality and human action in this way:

In early Hinduism that conduct in men which can be called good consists in conformity to, or almost participation in, the Rta—that great ritual or pattern of nature and supernature which is revealed alike in the cosmic order, the moral virtues, and the ceremonial of the temple. Righteousness, correctness, order, the Rta, is constantly identified with satya or truth, correspondence to reality. As Plato said that the Good was 'beyond existence' and Wordsworth that through virtue the stars were strong, so the Indian masters say that the gods themselves are born of the Rta and obey it. The Chinese also speak of a great thing (the greatest thing) called the Tao. It is the reality beyond all predicates, the abyss that was before the Creator Himself. It is Nature, it is the Way, the Road. It is the Way in which the universe goes on, the Way in which things everlastingly emerge, stilly and tranquilly, into space and time. It is also the Way which every man should tread in imitation of that cosmic and supercosmic progression, conforming all activities to that great exemplar. 'In ritual', say the Analects, 'it is harmony with Nature that is prized.' The ancient Jews likewise praise the Law as being 'true'. This conception in all its forms, Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, Christian, and Oriental alike, I shall henceforth refer to for brevity simply as 'the Tao'.

Taimni says:

Because the Ultimate Reality which is denoted by the word 'Absolute' or 'Parabrahman' (卍) is the very core of our being as well as the cause and basis of the universe of which we are part, we can no more get away from it than our solar system can get away from the sun round which it resolves and from which it receives everything which keeps it alive and moving. Although the Absolute is sometimes referred to by such epithets as the Void, Ever-Darkness etc. and is beyond intellectual comprehension, still, from the intellectual point of view it is the most profound concept in the whole realm of philosophy. The fact that it is called 'Unknowable' does not mean that it is beyond the range of philosophical or religious thought and something on which thinking is impossible or undesirable. The very fact that it is the heart and the basis of the universe should make it the most intriguing object of enquiry within the realms of the intellect. — I.K. Taimni,Man, God and the Universe,Chapter 1[20]

Aldous Huxley says:

"Only the transcendent, the completely other, can be immanent without being modified by the becoming of that in which it dwells. The Perennial Philosophy teaches that it is desirable and indeed necessary to know the spiritual Ground of things, not only within the soul, but also outside in the world and, beyond world and soul, in its transcendent otherness 'in heaven.' ... God within and God without; these are two abstract notions, which can be entertained by the understanding and expressed in words.

Similarly, the Hindu Taimni describes the Parabrahman英语Parabrahman as unknowable by the human mind and unthinkable but the highest object of realization and the most profound object of philosophical enquiry.[21]

Plotinus likewise taught that the goal of philosophy was to "contemplate the One".[22]

經歷絕對编辑

Philosophers and religious adherents who aim to pattern their life after the Absolute reality sometimes claim to have experienced the Absolute. They report mystical experience英语mystical experiences, feelings of oneness, transcendence of their everyday personality or of personhood altogether.

代表絕對编辑

 
世界之树代表日耳曼宗教的絕對

絕對的概念定義為說不出的東西或是不可想像的。這個概念用言語,詩歌,神話和藝術 This concept creates special problems for expression in words, poetry, mythology, and art. Writers, 亚历斯·格列, storytellers, filmmakers[23] often use paradox or contradiction because of the "contradictory aspect of the ultimate reality".[24]

According to Mircea Eliade英语Mircea Eliade, the Absolute can be mediated or 啟示 through 符号s.[25] For Eliade the "始基" mind is constantly aware of the presence of the Sacred, and for this mind all symbols are 宗教 (relinking to the Origin). Through symbols human beings can get an immediate "intuition" of certain features of the inexhaustible Sacred. The mind makes use of images to grasp the ultimate reality of things because reality manifests itself in contradictory ways and therefore can't be described in concepts. It is therefore the image as such, as a whole bundle of meaning, that is "true" (faithful, trustworthy).[25] Eliade says :[26]

...the sacred is equivalent to a power, and, in the last analysis, to reality. The sacred is saturated with being. Sacred power means reality, and at the same time enduringness and efficacy. The polarity sacred-profane is often expressed as opposition between real and unreal or pseudoreal. [...] Thus is easy to understand that religious man deeply desires to be, to participate in reality, to be saturated with Love.

絕對的常用符號包括世界樹英语world tree生命之樹英语tree of life, 宏觀與微觀, 曼荼羅、人體和兒童[27]

參見编辑

其他概念

註解编辑

  1. ^
    • [...]一個卐字,是旋風的象徵,它具有層次結構。這個象徵顯然表明圍繞中心的循環運動,是神聖的表現原則,長久以來被認為是[耶稣]];在印度,它認為是 [...]法轮,也就是智慧之神象头神的象徵;在中國,這個卐字象徵著數字。他也是風水原始符號它表明地球英语earth (Wu Xing)的四方向是從中心發出的水平擴展。 [...] 極星[1]
    • [...]卍第一象徵大熊星座的軸向運動的北極星,廣闊的螺旋運動。[2]
  2. ^
    • 字符由中心放射八個方向象徵空間立體線上的八個點,及世界的四個角對分。因此伊利亞德英语Mircea_Eliade研究認為這是一個放射中心的概念,並表達與(vero mondo)為同一概念。K
    [9]
  3. ^ 「絕對精神」是德國哲學家黑格爾哲學中的重要概念之一,是人類所可能發展到的最高階層[...]絕對精神之達成須透過主觀精神和客觀精神的綜合。精神在辯證的發展過程中,主觀精神是正,客觀精神是反,絕對精神是合[10]

註釋编辑

  1. ^ Jodorowsky, Alejandro; Costa, Marianne. The Way of Tarot: The Spiritual Teacher in the Cards. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions/Bear. 2009 [2017-07-05]. ISBN 9781594772634 (英语). 
  2. ^ ManWoman. Gentle swastika : reclaiming the innocence. Cranbrook, B.C.: Flyfoot Press. 2001: 106. ISBN 0968871607. 
  3. ^ Swinburne, Richard. The Existence of God 2. Clarendon Press. 2004-06-03. ISBN 9780199271689 (English). 
  4. ^ Huxley, Aldous. The Perennial Philosophy. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. 2009-01-01. ISBN 9780061724947 (English). 
  5. ^ Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology. Vol. I.. University of Chicago Press. 1951-01-01. 
  6. ^ Naturalism and Naturalistic Pantheism: can there be a naturalistic & scientific spirituality?. World Pantheism. [2017-07-05] (英语). 
  7. ^ Tegmark, Max. Is the Universe Made of Math? [Excerpt]. Scientific American. [2017-07-05] (英语). 
  8. ^ Hawking, Stephen; Mlodinow, Leonard. The Grand Design Reprint. New York: Bantam. 2012-02-21. ISBN 9780553384666 (English). 
  9. ^ Mircea Eliade英语Mircea Eliade. Il sacro e il profano. Bollati Boringhieri, 2006. ISBN 8833924408. p. 32
  10. ^ 絕對精神-國家教育研究院上的解釋. 國家教育研究院雙語詞彙. [2017-07-05] (中文(台灣)‎). 
  11. ^ philosophy. Encyclopedia Britannica. [5 July 2017] (英语). 
  12. ^ Plato, Republic, Book VI, 508.
  13. ^ Cross, St John of the. The Complete Works of Saint John of the Cross, Volume 1 of 2. Waxkeep Publishing. 2015-01-16 (English). 
  14. ^ Yandell, Keith E. Philosophy of Religion: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge. 2002-01-22. ISBN 9781134827237 (英语). 
  15. ^ Moser, Paul. Exclusivism, Inclusivism, and Kardiatheology. Philosophia Christi. 2009-01-01, 11 (2): 293–308. 
  16. ^ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. www.iep.utm.edu. [2016-04-27]. 
  17. ^ Schuon, Frithjof. Form and Substance in the Religions. Studies in Comparative Religion. 1974. 
  18. ^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan. The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Draupadi-harana Parva: Section CCLXX. Sacred Texts. The Supreme Spirit hath three conditions. In the form of Brahma, he is the Creator, and in the form of Vishnu he is the Preserver, and in his form as Rudra, he is the Destroyer of the Universe! 
  19. ^ Rodrigues, Hillary. Nirguna and Saguna Brahman. Mahavidya. 2015. Until this occurs, “the world…even including Isvara (the Lord), is not ultimately true or real, but that ultimate reality belongs only to the infinite, eternal, unchanging, pure bliss consciousness that is Brahman…all that we see with our senses, even our private thoughts, Advaita claims, are not ultimately real” (Betty 216). 
  20. ^ The phrase "core of our being" is 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德; see Bettina Bock von Wülfingen. Freud's 'Core of our Being' Between Cytology and Psychoanalysis. Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte. 2013, 36 (3): 226–244. doi:10.1002/bewi.201301604. 
  21. ^ Taimni, I. K. Man, God, and the Universe. Quest Books. 2014. ISBN 9780835631372 (英语). 
  22. ^ Edward Moore. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. www.iep.utm.edu. U. S. A. [2017-07-05]. 
  23. ^ Cf. 泰倫斯·馬利克's Tree of Life and 斯坦利·库布里克's 2001: A Space Odyssey are two good examples (one religious, one atheistic) of the use of contradiction to convey the Absolute in the final sequences.
  24. ^ Dadosky, 2004. p. 86
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 Dadosky, 2004. p. 85
  26. ^ Dadosky, 2004. p. 100
  27. ^ See George MacDonald'sThe Golden Key

參考資料编辑

  • Dadosky, John D. The structure of religious knowing encountering the sacred in Eliade and Lonergan. Albany: State University of New York Press. 2004. ISBN 0791460614. 
  • Rudolf Eisler. 哲學術語詞典. 1904 [2017-07-01] (德语). 
  • Joachim Ritter; Karlfried Gründer. Wahrheit, absolute (PDF 466KB): 135–137. 2004 [2017-07-01] (德语). 
  • Joachim Ritter; Karlfried Gründer. Das Unbedingte, unbedingtes (PDF 657KB): 108–112. 2001 [2017-07-01] (德语). 
  • Markus Gabriel. L'assoluto e il mondo nella "Freiheitsschrift. : 2012. ISBN 978-88-7885-164-1. 
  • Dottarelli, Luciano. Maneggiare assoluti : Immanuel Kant, Primo Levi e altri maestri. Saonara (Padova): Il prato. 2012. ISBN 978-88-6336-171-1. 
  • Kasper, Walter. L' assoluto nella storia : nell' ultima filosofia di Schelling 1. ed. ital. Milano: Jaca Book. 1986. ISBN 8816301333. 
  • Donà], Paolo Salandini ; [prefazione di Massimo. Hegel : biografia dell'assoluto 1. ed. Roma: Spazio Tre. 2009. ISBN 8878400432. 
  • Peperzak, Adriaan. Autoconoscenza dell'assoluto : lineamenti della filosofia dello spirito hegeliana. Napoli: Bibliopolis. 1988. ISBN 8870881687. 
  • Patriarca, Salvatore. Dall'assoluto alla realtà : teodicea e ontogenesi nella Weltalterphilosophie schellinghiana. Milano: Mimesis. 2006. ISBN 8884834090. 
  • Pelloux, Luigi. L'assoluto nella dottrina di Plotino. Milano: Vita e Pensiero. 1994 [2017-07-01]. ISBN 9788834305607 (意大利语). 
  • Alessi, Adriano. Sui sentieri dell'assoluto : introduzione alla teologia filosofica 2. ed. riv. ed agg. Roma: LAS. 2004. ISBN 8821305597. 

外部連結编辑