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根据联合国教科文组织1972年制订的《保护世界文化和自然遗产公约》,世界遗产是指对全人类有重要文化自然价值的遗产项目[1]秘鲁於1982年2月24日接受《保護世界文化和自然遺產公約》,該國歷史遺蹟因此有資格列入《世界遺產名錄》[2]

1983年12月,世界遺產委員會第七次会议在意大利佛罗伦萨举行,秘鲁的「庫斯科城市」和「马丘比丘歷史保護區」在这次会议中入选,这也是该国遗产首度入选[3]。截至2010年,秘鲁共有十一处遗产入选。该国的世界遗产中有七處文化遺產,兩處自然遺產,而根據組織決定的世界遺產評定標準,同時符合文化和自然選擇標準為複合遺產,並共有兩處[2]。秘魯的25個大區只有6個入選,包括安卡什庫斯科利馬大區均包含了多項遺產[2]

1997年,馬丘比丘鄰近的山丘遭受了一場山火並使該地遺產遭受到威脅,直到消防員斬了一輪的樹才阻止了火勢的蔓延[4][5]。2010年早期,馬丘比丘和庫斯科因一場大雨而受到影響。2010年1月25日,近兩千名游客因山體滑坡阻塞了連接庫斯科遺產的鐵路而導致滯留在馬丘比丘。游客最終由十架直升機轉移,其中四架是由利馬大使館貸款自美國軍事部[6][7]

遗产列表编辑

以下表格中列出各項世界遺產的信息:

名稱世界遺產委員會所列定
地區:所在的25個秘魯大區1
時期:遺產代表的時間段,特別是建造時間
聯合國教科文組織數據:世界遺產編碼,入選年份和對應入選標準:標準(i)到(vi)為文化遺產,(vii)到(x)為自然遺產,同時符合文化和自然選擇標準為「複合遺產」
簡介:遺產簡介
  †遺產被列爲「瀕危」
名稱 圖像 地區 時期 聯合國教科文組織數據 簡介 參考
庫斯科古城   庫斯科 15至16世紀 273;1983;iii,iv 庫斯科由帕查庫特克印加帝國君王建立,其統治庫斯科王國並于15世紀擴展自印加帝國。它成爲印加帝國最爲重要的城市It became the most important city of the Inca Empire, divided into distinct areas for religious and administrative use, and surrounded by an organized system of agriculture, artisan, and industrial uses. The Spanish conquered the empire in the 16th century. They built Baroque churches and buildings over the Inca ruins. Cuzco is one of the highest cities in the world.[8] [9]
馬丘比丘歷史保護區   庫斯科 15至16世紀 274;1983;i,iii,vii,ix At 2,340米(7,680英尺) above sea level, the site of Machu Picchu was constructed as an expansive mountain estate around the middle of the 15th century, and abandoned approximately 100 years later. It includes walls, terraces, and buildings constructed from rock that is earthquake-resistant.[10] The city was home to about 1,200 people, mostly priests, women, and children. It was left abandoned prior to the Spanish arrival in Cuzco most likely due to smallpox. [11][12]
查文(考古遺址)   安卡什 公元前1至2世紀 330;1985;iii The Chavín culture developed in the Andean highlands between 1500 and 300 BC. The site is now known as Chavín de Huantar, which served as the center. The site consists of a complex of terraces and squares cut from rock. It is believed the Chavín were primarily a religious-based society whose influence resulted from their culture, rather than aggressive expansion. [13][14]
瓦斯卡蘭國家公園   安卡什 不適用 333;1985;vii,viii Huascarán National Park is located in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range of the Andes. It surrounds Huascarán, the tallest peak in Peru. The physical environment includes glaciers, ravines, and lakes, while the park is home to several regional animal species. The national park is uninhabited, but native llamas and alpacas graze in the lowlands.[15] [16]
昌昌城考古地區   拉利伯塔德 9至15世紀 366;1986;i,iii The city of Chan Chan served as the capital of the Chimú culture. The Chimú kingdom developed along the coast of northern Peru. Chan Chan is divided into nine walled units indicating political and social division. The Chimú were conquered by the Inca in 1470. The site was listed to the List of World Heritage in Danger when it was first inscribed, as the adobe constructions are easily damaged by heavy rain and erosion. [17][18][19]
馬努國家公園   庫斯科 不適用 402;1987,2009(遭修改);ix,x The park spreads over 1,500,000公頃(5,800平方英里) and from 150米(490英尺) to 4,200米(13,800英尺) above sea-level. Manú is home to 1,000 bird species, over 200 species of mammals (100 of which are bats), and over 15,000 species of flowering plants. Jaguars have been seen throughout the national park. The giant otter and giant armadillo are just a few rare species found in the national park.[20] Prior to being recognized as a World Heritage site in 1987, it was designated as a biosphere reserve in 1977. [21][22]
Historic Centre of Lima   Lima Province1 16th to 18th centuries 500; 1988, 1991 (extended); iv Lima was founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1535 as La Ciudad de los Reyes (City of the Kings). Until the middle of the 18th century, it was the most important city in Spanish South America. The architecture and decoration combine the style of both the local population and Europe, such as in the Monastery of San Francisco. Also, hospitals, schools and universities were built. San Marcos University was built in 1551. The city’s social and cultural life was organized within these places, giving Lima a convent image which characterized its urban profile until half of the 20th century. [23]
Rio Abiseo National Park San Martín N/A 548; 1990, 1992 (extended); iii, vii, ix, x The park was created in 1983 in order to protect the region's rainforest habitat. The park is home to many endemic species such as the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, which was thought to be extinct. The site is also listed under cultural criteria, as over 30 Pre-Columbian sites have been discovered since 1985. [24]
Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana   Ica 1st century 700; 1994; i, iii, iv The large designs in the Nazca Desert are believed to have been created by the Nazca culture between 400 and 650 AD. They were created by scratching lines into the ground surface. Designs include animals such as a monkey and hummingbird, plants, and geographic shapes on a large scale. It is believed that they served a ritualistic purpose. [25][26]
Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa   Arequipa 16th century 1016; 2000; i, iv Arequipa is built primarily on top of sillar, a white volcanic rock, the product of nearby El Misti volcano. The architecture of the city is known for its combination of traditional indigenous styles with the new techniques of the European colonial settlers. [27]
Sacred City of Caral-Supe   Lima 20th century BC 1269; 2009; ii, iii, iv The archaeological site belonged to the Norte Chico civilization that inhabited the area during the Late Archaic period. Caral is one of 18 complex urban settlements in the region and features many monuments and pyramids. Caral is the earliest known American settlement. A quipu recovered from the site demonstrates its influence on later Andean cultures. [28]

預備名單编辑

 
Pachacamac site
 
Cathedral of Cajamarca

In addition to sites inscribed on the World Heritage list, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[29]

As of 2016, Peru recorded seven sites on its tentative list. The sites along with the year they were included are:[30]

  1. Archaeological Complex of Pachacamac (1996)
  2. Historic Center of the City of Trujillo (1996)
  3. The Great Inka Trail: state transportation system originally named "Qhapac Ñan" (2001)
  4. The Historic Centre of Cajamarca (2002)
  5. Lake Titicaca (2005)
  6. Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ñan (2010)
  7. Kuelap Archaeological Complex (2011)

Both the "The Great Inka Trail: state transportation system originally named "Qhapac Ñan" and "Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ñan" include the Inca road system—a complex of approximately 40,000公里(25,000英里) of roads that connected the Inca Empire. It was built by laborers and engineers using bronze and stone tools.[8] While "The Great Inka Trail" is an entry exclusive to Peru,[2] "The Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ñan" is a site also listed by Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. The movement to include the road system was initiated with Peru's addition of it to the tentative list in 2001. Argentina and Chile joined the movement shortly afterwards. On January 29, 2003, the six Andean states approached the World Heritage Centre, requesting that it take charge of coordinating the joint project.[31]

遗产位置编辑

注释编辑

1. ^ 利馬省是195個秘魯省份中唯一一個不屬於大區中。

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ The World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Peru. UNESCO. [2010-09-21]. 
  3. ^ Report of the Rapporteur. UNESCO. 1984-12 [2010-09-21]. 
  4. ^ Fire At Machu Picchu, Peru, 6–11 September. UNESCO. 1997-09-12 [2010-09-23]. 
  5. ^ Machu Picchu Ruins Said to Escape Fire. Washington Post. 1997-09-09 [2010-09-23]. 
  6. ^ Torrential rains cause death and damage at Peruvian World Heritage sites. UNESCO. 2010-01-28 [2010-09-23]. 
  7. ^ Antezana, Fabiola. Hundreds Stranded in Tourist Town of Machu Picchu. ABC News. 2010-01-26 [2010-09-23]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/inca-highway-5582036/
  9. ^ City of Cuzco. UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 
  10. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/273
  11. ^ Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 
  12. ^ Machu Picchu. Archaeological Sites. Minnesota State University. October 14, 2004 [September 21, 2010]. 
  13. ^ Chavín (Archaeological Site). UNESCO. [September 22, 2010]. 
  14. ^ Chavín de Huantar, Peru. Global Heritage Network. [October 24, 2010]. 
  15. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/333
  16. ^ Huascarán National Park. UNESCO. [September 23, 2010]. 
  17. ^ Chan Chan Archaeological Zone. UNESCO. [September 23, 2010]. 
  18. ^ Chan Chan Archaeological Zone – Threats to the Site. UNESCO. [September 23, 2010]. 
  19. ^ Historia. Complejo Arqueologico de Chan Chan. Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad. [September 23, 2010] (Spanish). 
  20. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/402
  21. ^ Manú National Park. UNESCO. [September 23, 2010]. 
  22. ^ Conservation. The Living Edens – Manu. Public Broadcasting Service. [September 23, 2010]. 
  23. ^ Historic Centre of Lima. UNESCO. [September 23, 2010]. 
  24. ^ Rio Abiseo National Park. UNESCO. [September 24, 2010]. 
  25. ^ Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana. UNESCO. [September 27, 2010]. 
  26. ^ Brown, David & Helaine Silverman. New evidence for the date of the Nazca lines. Antiquity: 208–220. [September 27, 2010]. 
  27. ^ Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa. UNESCO. [September 28, 2010]. 
  28. ^ Sacred City of Caral-Supe. UNESCO. [September 28, 2010]. 
  29. ^ Tentative Lists. UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 
  30. ^ Tentative Lists (Peru). UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 
  31. ^ Main Andean Road – Qhapaq Ñan. UNESCO. [September 21, 2010]. 

外部链接编辑