User:Dkzzl/消歧义、模板沙盒

COA of Évora municipality (Portugal).png

埃武拉的市徽(上图)中的骑士即是无畏的热拉尔多;该城的中心广场——热拉尔多广场(下图)也以他命名

Praca do Giraldo, Evora, Alentejo, Portugal, 28 September 2005.jpg

无畏的热拉尔多(葡萄牙语:Geraldo Sem Pavor[1],约死于1173年)是一位葡萄牙战士,也是收复失地运动中基督教一方的一位英雄人物。他主要在瓜迪亚纳河下游贫瘠的阿连特茹埃斯特雷马杜拉地区与穆斯林作战,他最大的成就是攻占了埃武拉,自他占领该城以后,此城一直由基督徒控制。他的传奇经历与卡斯蒂利亚的英雄熙德有些相似,因此他也被成为“葡萄牙的熙德[2]”。

在阿连特茹和埃斯特雷马杜拉的征战编辑

热拉尔多可能并不是一个贵族,他1162年左右组织了一支私人军队,士兵主要是来自科英布拉的市民[3]。热拉尔多率领的军队名义上是一支私兵,《哥特人编年史》称他们是一支自筹粮饷的强盗,但国王阿方索一世也很有可能为他们提供了支援。因为此时国王受到莱昂卡斯蒂利亚的协议的限制,无法亲自南征[3]

热拉尔多的部队发展了一套对付穆斯林据点的行之有效的战术[4]。他通常在天寒地冻或暴风雨来临时发动出其不意的袭击,并组织小股精锐士兵偷偷翻上工事,杀死哨兵,打开城门,大军随之鱼贯而入[5]。穆斯林史家伊本·萨希卜·萨拉(Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalā)对他的战术做了记载,后来17世纪的穆斯林史家马加利也引用了这一记载[6]。原文如下:

基督狗(热拉尔多)选择在漆黑一片、狂风四起、雨雪交加的夜晚率军偷偷向城市进军。他们带着用来翻过城墙的大型木梯,架起梯子翻过城墙,抓住哨兵,命他按平时的方式报告,免得别人察觉。突击队占领整个城墙后,就以自己的语言发出可怕的喊叫,随后冲进城内,消灭敌军,劫掠每一个遇见他们的人,最后把全城的人都带走囚禁[7]

以这种战术,热拉尔多攻占了许多城市。各种原始记载中,他攻占的城市基本一致,但关于占领的时间和顺序的记载则存在不同。伊本·萨希卜的记载如下:

 
热拉尔多在埃武拉的雕像,描绘他斩下一个摩尔人的首级

伊斯兰纪元560年(公元1165年)的主马达·敖外鲁月(4月-5月),特鲁希略被敌军奇袭攻下,都尔喀尔德月(10-11月)有名的埃武拉城沦陷。561年(公元1166年)的色法尔月(1165年12月-1166年1月),卡塞雷斯的人民遭受了同样的命运。主马达·阿色尼月(1166年4月-5月),蒙坦切斯的城堡及位于茹洛梅尼亚塞尔帕的据点也被攻占[8]

伊斯兰纪元560-561年大致相当于公元1165-1166年,但据其他记载,伊本·萨希卜的记载可能比实际情况晚一年。据后来的一部葡萄牙语编年史《哥特人编年史》的记载,热拉尔多攻占埃武拉是在西班牙纪元1204年,即公元1166年[9],特鲁希略是在1164年5月14日或6月[10]被攻占[11],卡塞雷斯则是在1164年12月[10]或1166年9月被占领[11]。以上几个城市就是他征服活动的主要成果,次要一些的对蒙坦切斯、茹洛梅尼亚、塞尔帕的征服可能发生在1165年[10],其中后两者的征服也可能发生在1167年3月[11]


圣克鲁斯德拉谢拉于1167-1168年[11]或1169年与乌雷尼亚(Ureña)一起被热拉尔多攻陷[10],成为他的最后两个成果。占领两地使他能够威胁贝雅[11]。另外他还在一次远征中攻占了蒙弗拉圭[12],但不能确定其时间[6]

与莱昂王国的冲突编辑

热拉尔多的征服大获成功,但他于1168年向东扩张,引起了莱昂王国的警惕。当初莱昂-卡斯蒂利亚国王阿方索七世萨阿贡制定了继承安排,热拉尔多所征服的部分地区本来是应留给莱昂王国去征服的[13],有些最东边的土地甚至本来是留给卡斯蒂利亚王国去征服的[10]。莱昂国王费尔南多二世在热拉尔多占领特鲁希略之后就展开了敌对行动,1166年春,占领了阿尔坎塔拉这个塔霍河南岸的桥头堡[14],随后,穆斯林统治者穆瓦希德王朝哈里发优素福一世又警告费尔南多,称热拉尔多侵犯了后者的占领权,于是费尔南多与优素福结盟[5][10]

1169年早夏,热拉尔多经过长时间的围城,攻下了巴达霍斯,但守军逃进内城,围攻战仍在继续[5]。葡萄牙国王阿方索一世意识到,攻占这一重要城市可以同时削弱他的伊斯兰教和基督教敌人, 于是率军前往巴达霍斯帮助热拉尔多。这引起了莱昂国王费尔南多二世的反制,他宣称巴达霍斯应该是他的,并应穆瓦希德哈里发优素福一世的要求,领兵南下与优素福的500援军会合[10]。两支部队合力围困了葡萄牙军队,双方在巴达霍斯展开了巷战,阿方索国王想要逃走,但被城门铰链卡住坠马,摔断了腿的国王被敌人俘虏。热拉尔多则被莱昂贵族,国王的妹夫费尔南·鲁伊斯·德·卡斯特罗俘虏。

战斗结束后,莱昂王国控制了巴达霍斯(包括内城),随后把该城还给穆斯林。Ferdinand succeeded in gaining the valley of the upper Limia and the regions of Toroño (around Tuy), Capraria (around Verín), and Lobarzana (around Chaves) from Afonso in exchange for his release.[15] Several of Gerald's conquests were ceded to purchase his freedom.[5][13] Ferdinand retained Cáceres, but Trujillo, Montánchez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and Monfragüe he gave to Fernán Ruiz.[16]

为穆瓦希德王朝效命编辑

In 1171 and 1172,[17] while Yusuf was waging war on Valencia and Murcia, general anarchy prevailed in the Extremadura as Leonese, Portuguese, and Almohad troops fought for supremacy. Gerald took advantage of Yusuf's absence to conquer Beja in the Alentejo (1172). When he and Afonso disagree over whether to hold the site or raze it, Gerald—"impoverished and bereft of all aid" [18]—went to Seville to put himself in the service of the caliph. To keep him away from Portugal he was sent to Morocco with 350 troops.[19] There he received the governorship of al-Sūs (the plains and mountains of southern Morocco), but soon entered into negotiations with his former monarch concerning the use of al-Sūs as a base for a Portuguese invasion. When his correspondence was intercepted, he was arrested and put to death.[5] The Chronica latina regum castellae, a Latin Christian chronicle, summarises Gerald's career in one paragraph at the end of its tenth chapter:

Also then [at the capture of Afonso I at Badajoz] was captured Gerald, alias "without fear", who was given over to Rodrigo Fernández [sic], the Castilian, to whom, in exchange for his liberty, Gerald handed over Montánchez, Trujillo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and Monfragüe, which the same Gerald had gained from the Saracens, to whom he had caused much damage, and by whom he was decapitated in Moroccan territory on a laughable pretext.[20]

The chief source for Gerald's negotiations with the caliph and his death in Morocco is Ibn `Idhārī al-Marrākushī's Al-Bayān al-Mugrib. Many of the cities and castles that Gerald captured with ease were later re-conquered by the Almohads, who improved their fortifications so much that they were not taken by the Christians again until the next century.[21] Cáceres was besieged four times without success (1184, 1213, 1218, and 1222) and is usually referred to as a castrum famossum ("famous castle") or muy fuerte castillo ("very strong castle") in Christian sources, although it had fallen relatively easily to Gerald.[22] Trujillo was not taken by the Christians again until 1234.[23] The defences of Badajoz were completely reworked after 1169 and those that survive today are almost entirely of the Almohad period; the city only fell to the Christians permanently in 1226.[24]


  The dauntless Gerald: in his left he bears
   Two watchmen's heads, his right the falchion rears:
   The gate he opens, swift from ambush rise
   His ready bands, the city falls his prize:
   Évora still the grateful honour pays,
   Her banner'd flag the mighty deed displays:
   There frowns the hero; in his left he bears
   The two cold heads, his right the falchion rears.

         —Camoens, The Lusiads
            (Canto VIII, 21)[25]

后世影响编辑

Gerald left his mark on the toponymy of the Extremadura. A document of the Order of Calatrava of 1218 refers to the cabeza de giraldo ("head of Gerald") as a place, without indicating where it lay. Two streams, the Geradillo and the Geraldo, the first flowing from the second and into the Tagus, are also named after Gerald. The region where the stream originates is in the highlands around Casas de Miravete, which is quite possibly the site of the cabeza.[26]

The legends which later arose surrounding Gerald are given concise retelling by Louis-Adrien Duperron de Castera, a French translator:

He was a man of rank, who, in order to avoid the legal punishment to which several crimes rendered him obnoxious, put himself at the head of a party of freebooters. Tiring, however, of that life, he resolved to reconcile himself to his sovereign by some noble action. Full of this idea, one evening he entered Évora, which then belonged to the Moors. In the night he killed the sentinels of one of the gates, which he opened to his companions, who soon became masters of the place. This exploit had its desired effect. The king pardoned Gerald, and made him governor of Évora. A knight with a sword in one hand, and two heads in the other, from that time became the armorial bearing of the city.[27]

来源与注释编辑

Notes编辑

  1. ^ Owing to the non-standardisation of spelling in the twelfth century, his name may also be rendered Gerardo or Giraldo. The Spanish version of his patronymic is Geráldez. In medieval Latin he was described as Giraldus qui dicebatur sine pavore ("Gerald, who is called without fear").
  2. ^ Or the "Portuguese Cid", but not without some controversy. To certain Spanish scholars a mere guerilla fighter has no business consorting with El Cid (cf. Cillán Cillán, n9).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Saraiva, J.H. 葡萄牙简史. 澳门: 花山文艺出版社. 1994: 36–38. ISBN 9787806112205. 
  4. ^ Clemente Ramos, 653.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Bishko, 414–15.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Pavón Maldonado, 182.
  7. ^ Clemente Ramos, 653 n14: El perro caminaba en noches lluviosas y muy oscuras, de fuerte viento y nieve, hacia las ciudades y había preparado sus instrumentos de escalas de madera muy largas, que sobrepasen el muro de la ciudad, aplicaba aquellas escaleras al costado de la torre y subía por ellas el primero, hasta la torre y cogía al centinela y le decía: "Grita como es tu costumbre," para que no le sintiese la gente. Cuando se había completado la subida de su grupo a lo más alto del muro de la ciudad, gritaban en su lengua con un alarido execrable, y entraban en la ciudad y combatían al que encontraban y le robaban y cogían a todos los que había en ella cautivos y prisioneros a todos los que estaban allí.
  8. ^ Translated from the Spanish: En Yumada segundo de la hegira 560 fue sorprendida la ciudad de Truxillo, y en Diskada, la notable villa de Jeburah. También la población de Cáceres en Safar de 561, y el castillo de Muntajesh en Umada y los fuertes de Severina y Jelmaniyyah (in Cillán Cillán).
  9. ^ Enrique Flórez, España Sagrada (Madrid: 1796), XIV:428: Æra 1204. Civitas Elbora capta, & depraedata, & noctu ingressa a Giraldo cognominato sine pavore, & latronibus sociis ejus, & tradidit eam Regi D. Alfonso (In the year 1166 the city of Évora was captured and depredated, for at night it was entered by Gerald called "the Fearless", and his associates entered by the latrines, and made over [the city] to the king Don Afonso).
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Cillán Cillán.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Floriano Cumbreño, see note 10 in Cillán Cillán.
  12. ^ Variously spelled Mofra, Monfra, Monfrag, and Monsfragüe.
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Powers, 42.
  14. ^ Hernández Giménez (part III), 311–12.
  15. ^ Fletcher, 134.
  16. ^ Ibn Ṣāḥib states that three years after its conquest, between 17 October 1167 and 4 October 1168, Gerald was forced to cede Trujillo to a certain Ferdinand, called a brother-in-law of "Fernando el Baboso" (Ferdinand the Stupid), that is, the king of León. The gift to Fernán is also recorded in a Christian source, the Chronica latina regum castellae. The date given by Ibn Ṣāḥib conflicts with the dates of 1169 (cf. Bishko, 414–15) or 1170 (cf. Clemente Ramos, 649–50) found in other sources. Cf. Hernández Giménez (part I), 93.
  17. ^ Years in which Muhammad ibn Mardanish of Murcia was defeated by Yusuf and then died, leaving his kingdom of the taking.
  18. ^ Original Latin: depaupertatus autem et destitutus omni auxilio transtulit se ad Sarracenos, quibus multa dampna intulerat (quoted in Barton, n84).
  19. ^ Barton, 28–35.
  20. ^ Original Latin (from Cillán Cillán): Tunc et caputs fuit Giraldus qui dicebant sine pavore et traditus in manus Roderici Fernandi Castellani, cui pro liberatione sua dedit idem Giraldus Montages, Trujellum, Sancta Cruz, Monfra que idem Giraldus acquisierat a sarracenis.
    Spanish translation (from Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, 10): También fue entonces capturado Giraldo, alias "Sin miedo", quien fue entregado a Rodrigo Fernández, el Castellano, al que, a cambio de su libertad, Giraldo entregó Montánchez, Trujillo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra y Mofra, que el mismo Giraldo había ganado a los sarracenos, a los que había causado muchos daños, y por los que fue decapitado en tierras marroquíes con un pretexto baladí.
  21. ^ Clemente Ramos, 701.
  22. ^ Clemente Ramos, 655.
  23. ^ Clemente Ramos, 670.
  24. ^ Clemente Ramos, 677–78.
  25. ^ Translation from the 1887 edition of William Julius Mickle's (1776) translation, p. 229. Other translation available online are J. J. Aubertin (London: 1884), p. 107, and Richard Francis Burton with Isabel Burton (London: 1880), vol. II, p. 296.
  26. ^ Hernández Giménez (part III), 303.
  27. ^ From Mickle's translation of Castera's notes to Camoens, p. 229 n3.

来源编辑

  • Simon Barton. 2002. "Traitors to the Faith? Christian Mercenaries in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, c.1100–1300". Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict, and Coexistence: Studies in Honour of Angus MacKay. Edited by Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Charles Julian Bishko. 1975. "The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095–1492". A History of the Crusades, vol. 3: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Harry W. Hazard, ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Francisco Cillán Cillán. 2006. "La fortaleza medieval de la Sierra de Santa Cruz". Coloquios Históricos de Extremadura.
  • Julián Clemente Ramos. 1994. "La Extremadura musulmana (1142–1248): Organización defensiva y sociedad". Anuario de estudios medievales, 24:647–701.
  • Richard A. Fletcher. 1978, The Episcopate in the Kingdom of León in the Twelfth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Félix Hernández Giménez. 1967. "Los caminos de Córdoba hacia Noroeste en época musulmana, I". Al-Andalus, 32(1):37–123.
  • Félix Hernández Giménez. 1967. "Los caminos de Córdoba hacia Noroeste en época musulmana, III". Al-Andalus, 32(2):277–358.
  • Basilio Pavón Maldonado. 1967. "Arqueología musulmana en Cáceres (Aljibes medievales)". Al-Andalus, 32(1):181–210.
  • James F. Powers. 1987. A Society Organized for War: The Iberian Municipal Militias in the Central Middle Ages, 1000–1284. Berkeley: University of California Press.

延伸阅读编辑

  • Antonio Floriano Cumbreño. 1957. Estudios de Historia de Cáceres (desde los orígenes a la Reconquista). Oviedo: Diputación Provincial de Cáceres.
  • David Lópes. 1940. "O Cid português: Geraldo Sempavor". Revista Portuguesa de Historia, 1:92–109.
  • Armando de Sousa Pereira. 2008. Geraldo Sem Pavor: Um guerreiro de fronteira entre cristãos e muçulmanos, c. 1162–1176. Oporto: Fronteira do Caos Editores.

External links编辑