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User:DukeAnt/企业系统规划法

企业系统规划(英語:Business system planningBSP)方法是一种分析、定义和设计组织的信息系统总体方案的方法。1981年其被引入由IBM,并仅限内部使用,[1]其实在20世纪70年代初,BSP的起步工作已经开始了。[2]其是处理相互关联的数据、流程、战略、目标和组织部门的复杂方法。

BSP是一种实现信息系统总体方案的新方法,[3]其目标是:

  • 理解目前应用的问题和机遇
  • 开发支持企业的未来技术
  • 为高管提供IT支出的方向和决策框架
  • 提供信息系统(IS)和发展蓝图

BSP项目的成果是结合投资和经营策略的技术路线图。 BSP包括15个步骤,可以按功能分为三部分。

准备编辑

调研授权编辑

BSP中必不可少的第一步是从管理部门或其他感兴趣的部门获取此次调研的授权。下列角色必须同意此次调研的目的和范围:

  • 发起人
    • 提供财政支持
  • 团队领导
    • 选择团队成员(四至七人)
    • 配合工作
    • 调研文档与实施(通常超过八周的时间)
    • 向管理层展示调研结果
  • 团队成员
    • 通常是一个部门的负责人
    • 分析和判断组织的信息需求英语Information needs
    • 对未来信息系统的内容提建议
    • 向管理层展示调研结果
  • 秘书
    • 调研文档
    • 协助团队领导

准备编辑

第二步是团队领导的调研准备。其目标为:

  • 制定时间表
  • 获取文档
  • 选择要访谈的经理
  • 准备会议和采访空间
  • 告知团队成员:
    • 机构职能
    • 机构数据处理水平

这一步的产物是包含上述信息,以及调研时间表、IT文档和图表的调研书。

开始编辑

在调研的第一次会议上,发起人介绍调研的目的和预期结果,领队展示调研计划,IT经理介绍信息系统的当前状态,以及其在组织中的作用。

Analysis编辑

The analysis is the most important part of BSP. The team searches for an appropriate organizational structure as it defines business strategy, processes and data classes[4] and analyzes current information support.

Strategy编辑

This step define strategic targets and how to achieve them within the organization:

  • Adaptating to the customer´s desires
  • Centrally-planned reservations, stock, payments
  • Improvements in checking in, shipping, presentation, advertising, partner relations and stock management
  • New customers
  • Noise reduction
  • Paperless processes
  • Product-portfolio expansion
  • Loss and cost reduction
  • Simplifying customer order cycle
  • Transport coordination
  • Upgrade of production line
  • Updating information

The team works from these strategic targets. Organizational units are departments of the organization. Each department is responsible for a strategic target.

Processes编辑

There are about 40-60 business processes in an organization (depending on its size), and it is important to choose the most profitable ones and the department responsible for a particular process. Examples include:

  • Contact creation
  • Hangaring
  • Invoicing
  • Monitoring
  • Airplane coordination and service
  • New-customer registration
  • Service catalog creation
  • Reservations
  • Employee training
  • Transfers
  • Car rental

Data classes编辑

There are usually about 30–60 data classes, depending on the size of the organization. Future IS will use databases based on these classes. Examples include:

Information support编辑

The purpose of this step is to check the applications used by an organization, evaluating the importance of each to eliminate redundancy.

Management discussion编辑

In the final analytical step the team discusses its results with management to confirm (or refute) assumptions, provide missing information, reveal deficiencies in the organization and establish future priorities.

Issue results编辑

All documents created during the analysis are collected, serving as a base for future information architecture. The organization classifies and dissects all identified problems; a list is made of the cause and effect of each problem, which is integrated into the future IS.

Conclusion编辑

Defining information architecture编辑

To define an organization's information architecture,[4] it is necessary to connect the information subsystems using matrix processes and data classes to find appropriate subsystems. The organization then reorders processes according to the product (or service) life cycle.

Establishing IS-development priorities编辑

A number of criteria (costs and development time, for example) establish the best sequence of system implementation. High-priority subsystems may be analyzed more deeply. This information is given to the sponsor, who determines which information subsystems will be developed.

Verifying study impact编辑

An IS planning and management study should be conducted. When the organization has finished its work on processes and data classes, it should explore the functions and goals of the system with a list of requested departmental changes and a cost analysis.

Proposals编辑

Final recommendations and plans are made for the organization during this step, which encompasses information architecture, IS management and information-subsystem development and includes costs, profits and future activities.

Presentation编辑

This is the agreement of all interested parties (team, management and sponsor) on future actions.

Final step编辑

The organization should establish specific responsibilities during the project's implementation. There is usually a controlling commission, ensuring consistency across the IS.

BSP, in addition to its value to IS planning, introduced the process view of a firm. The business process reengineering of the 1990s was built on this concept. It also demonstrated the need to separate data from its applications using it, supporting the database approach to software development methodology.

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Gordon Bitter Davis, Gordon B. Davis (1999) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management and Encyclopedic Dictionaries, The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Management Information Systems. p. 173
  2. ^ Antonia Albani, Joseph Barjis, Jan L.G. Dietz eds. (2009) Advances in Enterprise Engineering III: : 5Th International Workshop, Ciao! 2009, and 5th International Workshop, Eomas 2009, Held at CAiSE 2009, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 8–9, 2009, Proceedings. p. 57
  3. ^ John Zachman 1982. "Business Systems Planning and Business Information Control Study: A comparisment. In: IBM Systems Journal, vol 21, no 3, 1982. p. 31-53. In this 1982 article John Zachman explains:
    Business Systems Planning (BSP) and Business Information Control Study (BICS) are two information system planning study methodologies that specifically employ enterprise analysis techniques in the course of their analyses. Underlying the BSP and BICS analyses are the data management problems that results in systems design approaches that optimize the management of technology at the expense of managing the data.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Business Systems Planning (IBM Corporation), paper 2. Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University.