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滑鐵盧及城市線是倫敦地鐵的路線之一,連接泰晤士河兩端的滑鐵盧站和銀行站,沿途不設車站。其主要功能,是為在滑鐵盧總站乘搭國鐵的英格蘭西南部之乘客,提供前往直達倫敦市的地鐵服務。由於需要來往兩地的多為通勤客,該線於每星期日及公眾假期均暫停服務。

本線最初由Waterloo & City Railway Company建造,在1898年7月11日啟用,路線名稱內的"City"即為銀行站啟用時的站名。本綫是都市與南倫敦鐵路(現在是北綫的一部分)通車後,倫敦第二條通車的電氣化地鐵綫。經過一輪營運業者的易手後,英國鐵路被國有化,本線則成為了國鐵網絡的一部分。一直到1994年,倫敦地鐵接手營運此線,並翻新路線設備、引入新型列車。本線與其他鐵路路線完全隔絕,且幾乎全線處於地底,唯一通往地面之處是滑鐵盧車廠廠內的天井。列車需移至別處維修或翻新時,都是經由起重機懸掛進出本線。

本線全長2.37km,迄今為全系統最短的路線,坐畢全程需時約四分鐘。此外,它也是總乘客量最低的路線,每年只錄得1500萬乘客人次;但若除以路線長度計算,則在11條路線中位居第二,僅次於維多利亞線。

歷史编辑

路線啟用前 (-1898)编辑

開辦之背景编辑

在1848年,倫敦及西南鐵路 (London & South Western Railway, LSWR) 延伸至滑鐵盧總站 (舊稱 Waterloo Bridge),該站成為了連接英格蘭西南部地域的交通樞紐。然而,該站坐落於泰晤士河南岸,與作為傳統金融區的倫敦市 (The City) 相距甚遠,對乘客而言頗為不便。LSWR一直有意興建新線連接至倫敦市對岸的倫敦橋站,唯隨着興建鐵路的熱潮減退,此一計劃亦不了了之。South Eastern Railway在由倫敦橋西延至查令十字站時,同時建築了一條前往滑鐵盧站的接線;在不同鐵路業者的激烈競爭下,此一接線並未有得到充分的利用,繼而在1867年被荒廢了。

上述前往查令十字站的路線於1869年新增了滑鐵盧交匯站 (Waterloo Junction,今稱滑鐵盧東站)。在必須另購車票轉乘列車的情況下,由滑鐵盧站前往倫敦市的交通服務依然並不方便。[5]

為解決此一問題,於1864年出現了興建深層鐵路連接滑鐵盧站至 Great Scotland Yard 的計劃,稱之為 Whitehall and Waterloo Railway。該計劃提及挖掘一條管道,並且使用達 11 mbar 的氣壓推動完全緊貼隧道壁的列車,可說是一個活塞系統。有關工程於1865年10月25日展開,然而不足一年後,原先注資的£100,000經已不夠令工程繼續下去。儘管後來被獲批更多資金,此一計劃的投資者逐漸失去了信心,工程進度隨即中斷。及至1881年,再出現了名為 Waterloo and City Railway 的公司,希望可建造一條位處地面的路線通往 Queen Street。此一計劃叫價高達230萬英鎊,不久後亦告失敗。[5]

滑鐵盧及城市鐵路法案编辑

到了19世紀末期,傳統的明挖回填工法以及高架鐵路在倫敦經已變得不太可行,取而代之的是修建鑽挖式隧道。在採用此一工法的城市及南倫敦鐵路 (C&SLR, 今屬地鐵北線一部分) 於1890年啟用後,英國國會隨即出現了四個有關建造新地底鐵路的計劃。其中1891年11月被提出的滑鐵盧及城市鐵路法案 (The Waterloo & City Railway Bill),建議新增一條由滑鐵盧站前往倫敦市市長官邸附近的地底鐵路,此一方案得到了LSWR的支持。

基於在當時採用鑽挖式工法規模龐大、所費不菲,有關法案獲通過的進程可謂相當緩慢。在這一過程中,倫敦郡政府更一度堅持擴闊隧道,以供現存列車抵達滑鐵盧站後繼續駛至倫敦市,這一構想意味着要在倫敦市新建一個規模與滑鐵盧站相近的地底總站。雖然此一法案招來了不少反對的意見,它仍在1893年7月27日被授予御准,獲得通過。[5][6]

建造過程编辑

新成立的滑鐵盧及城市鐵路公司 (Waterloo & City Railway, W&CR) 於1894年3月發表了計劃書,發行54000股 (面值10英鎊),並成功全數售出。[5] 經過一輪招標後,建築工程合約由 John Mowlem & Co Ltd 以£229,064奪得[5],LSWR的工程師 W R Galbraith 以及盾構 (Tunneling shield) 的開發者之一 James H Greathead 則獲任命為工程顧問。[7]

Mowlem started work on 18 June 1894, first building staging in the river about 500 feet (150 m) west of Blackfriars Bridge. Piles were driven for a cofferdam and two vertical shafts of 16 feet (4.9 m) internal diameter were constructed as headings for the tunnel drive. The average depth of the tunnels is about 45 feet (14 m), with its deepest points at the River Thames, at 63 feet (19 m) underground.

Driving the running tunnels started in November 1894, using the Greathead system of shield excavation, cast iron segment lining, compressed air working, and compressed air grouting behind the tunnel lining. 20 men worked in each heading.[8]

The excavated material was removed from the staging near Blackfriars Bridge; it was conveyed to there from the shields by a narrow gauge railway using electric locomotives supplied by the Siemens Company. Two were in use and a third was on order at August 1895. They operated on 18-inch (460 mm) gauge track with a twin overhead trolley wire (i.e., not using the track for current return) at 200 V DC.[8]

The station works at Waterloo were constructed by Perry and Co. The station tracks run in separate but adjacent arches supporting the main line station, which run transversely to the main line track. The arch piers needed to be underpinned to about 8 feet (2.4 m) lower than the original foundations.[5]

走線编辑

本線始於 Spur Road 及 Baylis Road 之交界處,起初的一小段為向西北穿過滑鐵盧總站地底,隨即接着一條半徑短至339呎 (103m) 的急彎改向東北方進發。急彎一段採用了明挖回填法,而佔全線大部分的兩條鑽挖管道則緊接其後,先沿 Stamford Street 地底而行,再轉向東北偏北方穿過泰晤士河河底,一直延至 Blackfriars Bridge 之北端附近。在此之後,路線改為轉向東面,沿着 Queen Victoria Street 地底,直到位於市長官邸旁邊的新車站為止,共長1英里1912碼(2535m)。不計上述於滑鐵盧站的急彎,本線彎位最急之處的半徑為603呎 (184m)。

由滑鐵盧站開始計起,東行線最初有900呎 (270m) 的距離以1:30的斜度下降,接着以1:120和1:800的斜度降至河邊的通風井。西行線(就行駛方向的相反方而言)則以1:60及1:550的斜度抵達通風井處。兩條行車隧道隨即維持水平方向前進100呎 (30m),繼而以1:800的斜度攀升,在前進多1300呎 (400m) 後終以1:88的斜度爬到總終點。

隧道在上述603呎彎位的橫切面直徑達12呎9吋 (3.89m),而其他路段則闊12呎1 3⁄4吋 (3.70m),由多段各長20吋 (510mm)的鑄鐵環隧道壁合併而成。每個鑄鐵環可分為7段,以1吋大的 (25mm) 螺栓連結在一起。每段之間均有一塊油浸木片阻隔,厚度為3/8至1/2吋 (9.5-12.7mm) 不等。不同的木片厚度可以改變隧道的走向,唯在最急的彎位處,依然需要特別鑄造彎曲的隧道壁。除此之外,兩條管道之間共設有7條聯絡通道,而管道之頂部距離泰晤士河河底23呎 (7m)。

滑鐵盧國鐵總站的車站建築基本上是由一排排橫向的拱形結構所組成,而橫跨國鐵總站的新建地底站亦跟隨了此一結構,兩個月台分別位於兩掛橫拱之下。由於掉頭路軌位於月台之後,北面的側式月台只作落客用途,列車在所有乘客下車後會駛至掉頭路軌改變行車方向,並回到南面的月台接載乘客。An additional lay-by siding was provided later.[9]

至於倫敦市新站亦同樣設有兩個月台,不過則呈島式月台佈置,前方設有交叉渡線。The track connections at the approach were a double slip, not a scissors, so a train could not leave while another was arriving.[10] The left hand platform line was extended by a train length and trains could be stabled in the extension.[5] 另外,渡線一處是用直徑較大的Greathead式盾構所建成的。[11] 倫敦市站月台的管道橫切面直徑達23呎 (7.0m),為當時全世界最闊的鑽挖式隧道。[5]

信號系統编辑

到了1897年末,W&CR 再為路線的信號系統設備招標,有關工程由與 LSWR 簽了合約的工程師 W R Sykes 負責。

其中,在滑鐵盧站東行月台的南端,以及倫敦市站島式月台的南端,均放置了信號箱;滑鐵盧站南面亦安裝了唯一的臂木式號誌機,其他號誌機則為信號燈。Sykes在這項工程中採用了他所研發的 "Lock-and-block" 聯鎖系統,並配以機械式計軸器使用。雖然全線屬於同一個閉塞區間,Sykes仍然在月台的發車臂木式號誌機前方再裝設多一組信號燈,稱之為 "Advanced starting signal"。滑鐵盧站發車號誌機的臂木垂下時,代表列車只准駛至前方的信號燈,該信號燈標示可前進列車才可以駛往倫敦市站,藉此提升本線的運載能力。在每個信號燈的位置,均裝設了一小段金屬棒,在信號燈標示禁止通行時接地。列車上同時設有一個伸出的金屬臂,與接地的金屬棒接觸時會切斷牽引系統電流,減低列車相撞的可能性。[5]

電力供應系統编辑

西門子公司在1897年1月4日以 55,913 英鎊投得了提供及安裝本線電力供應設備的合約。本線的電力源自5個氣壓為 180psi (1200 kPa) 的鍋爐,用以推動5個 (後加至6個) 連至發電機的蒸汽引擎,其功率可達 360hp (270kW)。發電機在空載及滿載產生的電壓分別達 500V 及 530V,轉速為 350RPM,故實際上輸出的功率為 302hp (225kW)。車站照明系統為一由四盞大燈組成的串聯電路,並以路軌引導電流組成迴圈。它的電力是由總機直接提供,在電力供應受阻時仍可提供緊急電力;同時設有煤氣燈作後備照明系統。

在滑鐵盧車廠內,設有一條前往發電鍋爐,位置較高的獨立側線。運載着煤的 LSWR 鐵路貨車會先經由岩士唐升降機 (下述) 由 LSWR 主線放到滑鐵盧站此線月台以北的側線上,繼而在電力機車的牽引下,經東行月台駛進滑鐵盧車廠,再以另一部升降機運送至這條獨立側線。[5]

倫敦市新車站编辑

在1891年,中央倫敦鐵路 (CLR, 今地鐵中央線一部分) 隨國會通過法案,被批准可將其先前規劃好的路線改為前往倫敦市英格蘭銀行總部。法案規定了 CLR 需在該處興建新的車站以及連接地面的行人隧道等公共設施。[5][6]另外,其他有意在該處建造鐵路車站的鐵路公司亦被規定需以行人隧道連接 CLR 的車站,指的明顯就是 W&CR。雖然 CLR 的落成日期比 W&CR 遲,但是 CLR 仍需協助興建 W&CR 倫敦市站的轉乘設施。此外,城市及南倫敦鐵路 (C&SLR) 亦有在同一地方設站。 與 W&CR 的站名倫敦市站 (City) 不同,CLR 和 C&SLR 均將它們的車站命名為銀行站 (Bank)。[12] 在三個站之中,W&CR 倫敦市站設計上距離地面最遠,乘客出站時需要爬上又長又斜的樓梯,一直以來都為乘客所詬病。

路軌编辑

本線在建造時,使用了與 LSWR 一樣的鐵軌,重量為 87lb/yd (43kg/m);唯在枕木方面則跟隨其他鑽挖隧道鐵路的規格,以與鐵軌平行的方向墊底,並非像傳統鐵路一般橫向放置。它的軌距一如以往為標準軌(1435mm),而彎位較急的位置設有護軌。Cross-bonds paralleling the running rails electrically were provided every 100 feet (30 m) and between tracks at the cross passages.

The conductor rail was a steel inverted channel placed centrally, with its upper surface at the same level as the upper surface of the running rails. At pointwork a hardwood ramp was provided to raise the collector shoes 1 1⁄2 inches (38 mm) above running rail level.

用車编辑

Main article: Waterloo & City Railway electric units

本線車輛之合約是由美國的Jackson and Sharp Company以£21,675的價格奪得。製作好的列車會由海路分件運往 Southampton,再在 LSWR 的 Eastleigh 車廠進行組裝工序。到了1898年1月6日,列車首先在骨架狀態下被放置在隧道內,用以測試車輛限界;同年3月4日,完全組裝好的列車由 Eastleigh 車廠駛至滑鐵盧站。雖然將列車放進隧道的升降機及部分電機工程尚未完成,列車在同年6月4日的試車中首次成功行走全程。

列車的動力車卡和拖卡分別各長47呎1吋 (14.35m) 和46呎3 1⁄2吋 (14.11m),闊8呎6吋 (2.59m),並且由軌面起計高9呎8吋 (2.95m)。兩種車卡各有11架,大部分用作組成4卡編組之列車,剩下的則留作後備用途。編組中位於兩端的車卡為動力車卡。

此外,列車內部採用開放式設計,不劃分房間,在當時是相當新奇的設計;入口並非位於側面,而是在車廂的末端。動力車卡和拖卡分別可乘載46及56人,其中動力車卡部分位置呈隆起狀,用以放置提供動力的轉向架。

列車的牽引電動機由西門子所製造,為串聯式連接的 60hp (45kW) 無齒輪電動機。車長可直接控制後方動力車卡的電動機。列車起動時,兩邊的電動機會由串聯轉變至並聯式連接,此一方法需要在車頂裝設8條並列的電纜。路線的不少急彎亦導致了集電靴與第三軌間出現空隙,故有另一條電纜將兩端的集電靴連接起來,令問題得以解決。起初時,本線每列列車設有6名人員,分別為車長、車長助理、守衛及三名門警;車長助理一職不久後便被廢除。本線列車的制動系統則是由 Westinghouse 公司所製造,風缸內的高壓氣體是在車廠內的空氣壓縮機所提供。剛充滿的風缸氣壓達 100psi (690kPa),一直使用至 70psi (480kPa) 左右時便需要重新充氣。[5]

調車機車编辑

西門子除了負責提供電力系統外,同時亦需建造一輛機車作調車之用。該機車只設一個駕駛室,設有兩個可輸出 60hp (45kW) 的牽引電動機,於1898送抵本線;主要是用作運送煤炭至發電機。與載客列車一樣,機車制動系統的風缸亦是在車廠內進行充氣。這輛第一代機車一直使用至1969年,退役後被放在約克的大英鐵路博物館內作展出。

第二代的機車於1901年投入服務,由 LSWR 的機械總工程師 Dugald Drummond 設計,負責在出現事故時將壊車拖離行車路段。1915年,這輛機車被拖離本線隧道,改為負責拖動運煤的鐵路貨車,來往溫布頓附近的 Durnsford Road 發電廠。它的集電靴亦因而被改裝至符合國鐵路線供電系統的規格。

The Armstrong Lift编辑

As the line had no connection to any other line, nor any ground level section, it was necessary to provide a hoist to bring the passenger cars to the line, and to get them out for heavy maintenance. This was provided to the west of the Windsor side of Waterloo main line station, and was known as the Armstrong lift, after the manufacturer, Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd, who was paid £3,560. It was operated by water power; at the time of construction hydraulic power was commonly used in urban areas, supplied by utility companies, to operate hoists and lifts. The lift was to be capable of lifting 30 short tons (27 t). It was completed in April 1898. There was a smaller 25-short-ton (23 t) hoist within the low-level siding area at Waterloo for the boiler fuel wagons; this had a smaller travel and was installed by John Abbot & Co for £595.[5]

To this day, rolling stock exchanges require the use of road vehicles. Before the construction of Waterloo International terminal in 1990, the vehicles were hoisted individually by the Armstrong Lift outside the north wall of Waterloo main line station. The procedure is now carried out using a road-mounted crane in a shaft adjacent to the depot, south of Waterloo main line station on Spur Road. This is only necessary for major maintenance work that requires lifting of the car body, as the Waterloo depot is fully equipped for routine maintenance work. The remaining stub of the siding tunnel that led to the Armstrong Lift can still be seen on the left-hand side of the train shortly after leaving Waterloo for Bank, but the lift itself was buried (along with the entire Western sidings) in 1992 as part of the construction of Waterloo International station, the terminal for Eurostar trains.

Formal opening编辑

After everything was ready, and the Board of Trade inspecting officer passed the line as fit, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge formally opened the line on 11 July 1898. About 400 persons travelled from Waterloo to the City station and immediately back to Waterloo.

Arrangements had been made for the LSWR to work the line, but now not everything was in place for immediate opening: there was a delay of four weeks.

The line in operation编辑

The Waterloo & City Railway opened to the public at 8 a.m. on Monday 8 August 1898, with a train leaving each terminal simultaneously at that time. The fares were 2d one class only, payable at a turnstile, but returns and season tickets, and add-ons to surface tickets were available. From 1900 the turnstiles were done away with and conductors travelled on the trains, carrying Bell Punch ticket machines. The daily average receipts in January 1899 were £86,[9] and with steadily rising passenger usage and income the Company was able to pay a 3% dividend out of income following the annual general meeting of February 1902.[5] Sunday services were not considered at this period, and in 1906 it was stated that "it would cost £20 each Sunday to run the trains, and they would not get that back in receipts."[13]

Very soon after operation, it was realised that the line was running to capacity at the business peaks, then referred to as the rush, and very lightly used for the remainder of the day. Accordingly, in the spring of 1899 an order was placed with Dick, Kerr & Co. for five new motor cars for single operation. The driving cabs were half width; the traction motors, two per car, were 75 hp (56 kW) nose suspended with single reduction gear. As with the earlier cars, the air brake reservoir was charged from static equipment at Waterloo. Five of these single cars were delivered in February 1900 and entered service in the spring. From that time they alone worked the off-peak service, and the original vehicles only worked the peak services.

Absorption by the LSWR编辑

The line had been worked by the LSWR from the outset, and in 1906 the LSWR made overtures to the W&CR concerning an outright absorption. It was suggested at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the W&CR that increasing competition motivated the LSWR. An enabling Act was passed on 20 July 1906 and shareholders' approval being obtained, the transfer took place on 1 January 1907, with the shareholders receiving LSWR shares, and the W&CR ceased to exist.[5]

In 1915 the LSWR started electrifying its suburban routes, and for the purpose it built a large generating station at Wimbledon, Durnsford Road. The power for train operation on the Waterloo & City line was supplied from this from December 1915, and the original W&CR generating plant now served only ancillary purposes in the line, but also heating and lighting of the main LSWR Waterloo offices. The traction voltage on the W&CR was altered to 600 V (from the original 530 V[14][15][better source needed]).

In 1921 it had been considered desirable to augment train lengths at the busy periods, and four new trailer coaches to the original specification were built at Eastleigh; 24 five-car trains were run per hour at the busiest times.[5]

Southern Railway编辑

By the Railways Act 1921, the main line railway companies of Great Britain were grouped, effective at the beginning of 1923. The LSWR was now part of the Southern Railway. Due to the Waterloo & City's status as part of one of the "Big Four" railway companies, it was not taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) at the latter's formation in 1933, making the W&C the only tube railway in London not to fall under the control of the LPTB. Despite this anomaly, the line was included on most versions of the Underground map produced by the LPTB and its successors up until the line's absorption into the London Underground network in 1994.

A Blackfriars station proposed编辑

In 1934 the LPTB, which now operated most of the London Underground system, proposed that the Waterloo & City should have a new intermediate station at Blackfriars, connecting with the District line station there. They further proposed that the Waterloo & City line should be extended to Liverpool Street station and Shoreditch, the trains there continuing over the East London Railway to New Cross and New Cross Gate. It is not clear whether the scheme had been costed, but nothing came of it.[16]

New rolling stock and signalling, and City station renamed编辑

In 1937 the Southern Railway carried out a thorough review of the technical aspects of the line, now 40 years old. This led to an immediate proposal to order new rolling stock in five-car formations, in association with the provision of escalators at the City station. The scheme was delayed and the declaration of war on 3 September 1939 led to cancellation of the escalator scheme. However the rolling stock work was considered to be well advanced, and 12 motor coaches and 16 trailers were ordered from English Electric, and built at the Dick, Kerr works at Preston.

The trains were run in five-car formations, Motor coach + trailer + trailer + trailer + motor coach, with spares for overhaul. They were constructed of welded steel, and were styled in an Art Deco appearance. The motor coaches had cabs at each end, enabling single-car operation by them; they had two axle-hung traction motors rated at 190 hp (140 kW) for one hour. The new trains had on-board compressors for the air brakes, and interior lights were in two circuits, one fed from the motor car at one end of the unit, and one from the other, avoiding total lighting loss in passing conductor rail gaps. The conductor rail was altered to the outside position normal for the third-rail system. There was no train power line, and each motor coach collected its own electric supply. (This new stock was eventually classified Class 487.)

The new units were delivered through 1940, and the old cars were removed from the line on 25 October 1940, the new cars starting work on 28 October, with the line closed over the intervening weekend. The 100-pound-per-yard (50 kg/m) third rail installation had been progressive since January, with the rail put in place but not made live. New automatic signalling with trainstops was also commissioned, although Waterloo signal box was retained. The City signal box was abolished, and fully automatic working implemented there; the lay-by sidings there were abolished. The new stock did not require travelling conductors, and tickets were issued at the terminals.

When the line reopened as normal on 28 October, the City station was renamed Bank in conformity with the usage of the LPTB there.[5]

British Railways编辑

On 1 January 1948 the main line railways of Great Britain were nationalised, forming British Railways.

Armstrong Lift accident编辑

On 13 April 1948 a serious accident took place at the Waterloo Armstrong Lift; coal was still taken down to the original generating station which powered station offices at Waterloo. A shunt of wagons was being propelled on to the lift at the upper level; four pawls were supposed to be engaged to provide partial support to the lift table, but it appears that some had not engaged. The table tilted, drawing the wagons and M7 locomotive number 672 on to the table; the table and the entire shunt including the locomotive fell down the shaft. The locomotive and wagons were cut up in situ. There is no information as to the fate of the locomotive driver.

The Travolator编辑

When the line was built, the platforms at the Bank (then known as City) were located a considerable distance from the surface exits, and a long sloping tunnel had to be negotiated on foot. This led to constant complaints and from 1929 there were many proposals to improve the arrangements, as passenger numbers increased, adding congestion to the physical exertion. The proposals had variously included new escalators, direct connection to adjacent Central London Railway (later Central line) platforms, and new, closer, tunnelled exits.

In the 1950s a Speedwalk system of people mover consisting of a continuous rubber belt system, was implemented in certain American cities. After considerable delay considering this and alternatives, British Railways let a contract on 4 July 1957 for the civil engineering works in driving a new sloping access tunnel, in which a pair of travolators (at the time often written Trav-O-Lator) would be installed by Waygood Otis. Otis did not, at this stage, get a contract.

However, as work was getting under way, the Government imposed heavy cuts in capital expenditure on the railways, and after considerable deliberation, it was decided once again to defer alleviation of the problem; no financial benefit was anticipated from the scheme, whereas competing schemes would significantly reduce operational costs. The consulting engineers were directed to suspend work on 11 December 1957, although some enabling work, particularly a sewer diversion, proceeded.

The financial restrictions were not long-lasting, and on 10 July 1958 it was announced that the work would resume. It progressed without further major difficulties and a formal opening by the Lord Mayor of London took place on 27 September 1960, coming into public use immediately. There were two parallel travolators, each with a moving surface having 488 platform sections each 40 by 16 inches (1,020 mm × 410 mm); the whole length is 302 feet (92 m) on an inclination of 1 in 7. There was a moving handrail. In the morning peak both travolators would operate upwards, with arriving passengers being required to walk down the original ramps; at other times one travolator operated in each direction. The original Otis Trav-O-Lators have since been replaced by CNIM machines.

In association with the work, some improvements were made to the station environment at the Waterloo station, and a 2½ minute frequency was implemented in the peaks; this involved some minor signalling changes, reversion to alternating platform use at Bank, and the use of turnover drivers and guards (where the arriving driver and guard are replaced by staff waiting at the appropriate place for the change of direction, sometimes referred to as "stepping up"). A Rear Cab Clear plunger is provided at Bank so that the arriving driver can confirm that he is clear of the cab and the "step-back" driver can depart when the signal clears.

The work had cost £910,500.[5]

New rolling stock in 1993编辑

Main articles: British Rail Class 482 and London Underground 1992 Stock A train of 1992 stock in its original Network SouthEast livery stands at Bank station on the Waterloo & City line.

Toward the end of the 1980s the 1940 rolling stock fleet was giving increasingly difficult service. The decision was taken to acquire new vehicles as an extension to a rolling stock acquisition programme on the Central line of London Transport (LT). This required implementation of fourth rail traction current system to maintain consistency with the LT fleet: a new aluminium centre current rail was provided. (The original steel positive rail was replaced by an aluminium one in 2008.) The new vehicles had passenger operated door opening buttons, which were unlikely to be required on the Waterloo & City line.

At the same time as the rolling stock project, the construction of what became the Eurostar terminal at Waterloo main line station was being planned, requiring construction over a large area on the north side of the station, and burying the Armstrong Lift. Also, the carriages of the new rolling stock were significantly longer than those of the 1940 stock and could not be accommodated on the Armstrong Lift. Since its removal, vehicles have been craned in and out of the Waterloo depot by a mobile crane positioned near Spur Road.

On 28 May 1993 all of the old rolling stock was withdrawn, the train service being suspended temporarily. A temporary bus service was run while the old rolling stock was physically removed and the new rolling stock brought in, and the track and signalling works undertaken, with staff training. The line reopened on 19 July 1993, with a peak service frequency of 3½ minutes.

Since its introduction, this stock on the Waterloo & City has diverged significantly from that used on the Central line through various modifications, including the adoption of automatic train operation on the latter, that the two are no longer interchangeable; the Waterloo & City line continues to use train stops.

Transfer to London Underground Ltd编辑

On 1 April 1994 the line was transferred to London Underground Ltd.[3] At the time staff were given the option of transferring with the line or remaining in British Rail employment, and all except one chose the latter. The drivers are currently based at Leytonstone.

From 15 April 1996 the line worked to a new timetable, with three trains departing in each ten minutes during the morning peak.

Up to the time of closure for refurbishment the Class 482 trains carried the original blue British Rail Network SouthEast livery that they had when they were introduced, despite having been part of London Underground for a number of years.[5]

In January 2003, the Waterloo & City was closed for over three weeks for safety checks after a major derailment on the Central line, which required all 1992 tube stock trains to be modified. That same year, responsibility for the line's maintenance was given to the Metronet consortium under the terms of a public–private partnership arrangement.

Extension proposals编辑

There have been proposals to extend the Waterloo & City line for nearly a century. After acquiring the Great Northern & City Railway (GN&C) in 1913 (the current Northern City Line), the Metropolitan Railway considered proposals to join the GN&C to the Waterloo & City or to the Circle line, but these never came to fruition. Any extension of the line north would be difficult because of the complex web of tube lines around Bank, and an extension south would be unlikely to provide demand that matched the cost. The narrow tunnels and short train lengths of the current route make any extension less cost-effective than larger projects such as Crossrail 2, which cost more but start with modern tunnels and promise far greater benefits.

The London Plan Working Party Report of 1949 envisaged as its Route G the electrification of the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway (LTS), and its diversion away from Fenchurch Street to Bank and on through the Waterloo & City tunnels to Waterloo and its suburban lines.[17] The Waterloo & City tunnels would have had to be bored out to main line size to enable this, at prohibitive cost. In the event only the electrification of the LTS took place, though the Docklands Light Railway tunnel from Minories to the Bank follows part of the envisaged route.

The revised Working Party Report of 1965 did not mention the Route G proposal, though it does say that "[t]he possibility of extending the Waterloo & City line northwards to Liverpool Street has been examined, but found to be physically impracticable."[18] More recently the Green Party has revived the Metropolitan's plan of connecting the Northern City and Waterloo & City lines as a Crossrail route.[19]

Refurbishment编辑

The line has been closed on a number of occasions for repairs and vehicle checks. The line was shut on 1 April 2006 for refurbishment works. It re-opened on 11 September 2006, 11 days after the predicted completion date of the project. As well as the repainting and cleaning of the trains, the work included refurbishment of the tunnels, platforms and depot, and an upgrade of the track and signalling systems. During this time, the trains were also refurbished, which involved the fitting of new seat covers, a repaint of grab poles and a full exterior repaint into London Underground's corporate livery.[20] These and other works completed by 2007 were expected to boost rush-hour capacity by 25% and line capability by 12% at a cost of tens of millions of pounds. It was also claimed that the average journey will be up to 40 seconds faster.

Four new 75 hp (56 kW) battery-powered locomotives, named Walter, Lou, Anne and Kitty, were built by Clayton Equipment in Derby to haul materials and plant along the line during the closure.

Beyond these changes, Metronet had planned to refurbish Bank station by 2011,[21] but TfL's current plan now shows that the Bank refurbishment work should be complete by 2021.[22]

The same plan shows that TfL planned to install a further entrance to Bank station in Walbrook Square for completion by 2014. This was delayed, and a press release of 2014[23] announced an opening date of the end of 2017.

Map and stations编辑

Station Image Opened Additional Information
Bank     8 August 1898 Opened as City, renamed 28 October 1940map 1
Waterloo     8 August 1898 map 2

Opening hours编辑

The line opens and closes as follows:

  • Monday to Friday: 06:15 to 00:30
  • Saturday: 08:00 to 00:30
  • Sunday: Closed
  • Bank Holiday Monday, Christmas and New Year: Closed

The line ran trains on Sundays during the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics between late July and early September 2012,[25] on 27 January 2013, Easter Sunday and Easter Monday 2013, and on 14 July 2013 to ease congestion when the majority of the Northern line had engineering works.

Use as a filming location编辑

Because the Waterloo and City line is closed on Sundays, it has become a well-established and convenient location for filming, not least because in the days of British Rail (and predecessor) ownership, it could be used in the event of London Transport being either unable or unwilling to allow access to their stations or lines. It can be seen in the 1962 Norman Wisdom film On the Beat; filming took place on 12 August 1961.

On 23 May 1967 scenes for a murder in the film The Liquidator were filmed at the Bank station.[5]

The second series of the BBC's Survivors, representing various parts of the Central and Northern lines was filmed on the line; and in the 1984 TV adaptation of The Tripods, Waterloo masquerades as Porte de la Chapelle station on the Paris Métro. It was also used in the 1998 Peter Howitt film Sliding Doors, portraying Embankment and one other unknown District line station.

Miscellaneous编辑

The remnants of one of the Greathead tunnelling shields used in the construction of the line can be seen in the interchange tunnel at Bank linking the Waterloo and City with the Northern line and the Docklands Light Railway.[26]

The Waterloo & City is colloquially known as The Drain.[27] It has been suggested that this nickname came about due to the tunnels beneath the Thames leaking and needing to be continually pumped out.[28]

Uniquely among London's Underground lines, the Waterloo & City runs underground for its entire length, including both stations. (The Victoria line is also underground for the entire passenger route and all stations, but has a surface depot for maintenance.)

Similar services编辑

  • The 42nd Street Shuttle on the New York City Subway runs between Times Square and Grand Central.
  • The Ramal on the Madrid Metro, linking Ópera and Príncipe Pío stations.