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从在持续战争与防守状态下完工的雅克斯潘之墓中不难看出,这个时期的科潘充满了艰巨。神庙的柱子上写着“基柱的倒塌”也许就喻示着科潘王朝的陨落。[1] 各种不足之处折磨着这个人口过多的科潘谷,当最后一位已知的统治者Ukit Took'与822年2月6日登位时,他用圣坛Q的风格创造了圣坛L,但这纪念碑从未完成过--第一面显示了统治者的登位、第二面已经开始动工,但剩下的两面是空白状态。这个拥有众多统治者的大城邦就这样走向了结束。在科潘王朝末期,即使是贵族也受到了病痛的折磨,或许是因为流行病已经传播到了精英阶层。[1] 科潘王朝的陨落是突如其来的,大约发生在公元800到830年间。然而,当地人口仍持续增加,并且在750年至900年间处于繁荣状态,其后才逐渐减少。[2] 在后古典期时代,科潘谷被村民占领,他们为了建立简陋的平屋而从科潘的纪念性建筑物中偷取石材。[1]

现代历史编辑

A head from the Structure 10L-20 that currently is at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University.

在西班牙占领时期时,科潘于1576年3月8日的一封信中被初次提及。该信的作者是腓力二世危地马拉皇家英语Royal Audiencia of Guatemala的成员Diego García de Palacio。[3] 法国探險家Jean-Frédéric Waldeck英语Jean-Frédéric Waldeck于19世纪早期到访过此地并花费了一个月的时间将遗迹绘画下来。[4] 陸軍上校Juan Galindo英语Juan Galindo代表危地马拉政府于1834年远征往遗迹并为英国、法国、北美媒体写下记载。[4] John Lloyd Stephens英语John Lloyd StephensFrederick Catherwood英语Frederick Catherwood到访科潘并在1841年出版的《中美、恰奇帕斯、尤卡坦旅行记事》中记录了科潘的描述、地图与细节部分的绘图。[4] 后来英国建筑家Alfred Maudslay英语Alfred Maudslay也到访此地。[4] Several expeditions sponsored by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University英语Peabody Museum of Harvard University在19世纪后期和20世纪前期赞助了数次远征活动。[5] including the 1892–1893 excavation of the Hieroglyphic Stairway by John G. Owens英语John G. Owens and George Byron Gordon英语George Byron Gordon (archaeologist).[6] The Carnegie Institution also sponsored work at the site in conjunction with the government of Honduras.[7]

在科潘遭到废弃至被再次发现之间,它的建筑物明显遭受了巨大的自然灾害。After the abandonment of the city the Copán River gradually changed course, with a meander destroying the eastern portion of the acropolis (revealing in the process its archaeological stratigraphy英语stratification (archaeology) in a large vertical cut英语cut (archaeology)) and apparently washing away various subsidiary architectural groups, including at least one courtyard and 10 buildings from Group 10L–2.[8] The cut is an important archaeological feature at the site, with the natural erosion having created an enormous cross-section of the acropolis. This erosion cut away a large portion of the eastern part of the acropolis and revealed a vertical cross-section that measures 37米(121英尺) high at its tallest point and 300米(980英尺) long.[9] Several buildings recorded in the 19th century were destroyed, plus an unknown amount of the acropolis that was eroded before it could be recorded.[9] In order to avoid further destruction of the acropolis, the Carnegie Institution redirected the river to save the archaeological site, diverting it southwards in the 1930s; the dry former riverbed was finally filled in at the same time as consolidation of the cut in 1990s.[10] Structures 10L–19, 20, 20A and 21 were all destroyed by the Copán River as it eroded the site away, but had been recorded by investigators in the 19th century.[9]

Copán was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980, and UNESCO approved funding of US$95,825 between 1982 and 1999 for various works at the site[11] Looting remains a serious threat to Copán. A tomb was looted in 1998 as it was being excavated by archaeologists.[12]

Site description编辑

 
科潘中心部的地图

科潘因含有一系列的人物肖像的馬雅石碑而为人们所知The Copán site is known for a series of portrait stelae, most of which were placed along processional ways in the central plaza of the city and the adjoining acropolis, a large complex of overlapping step-pyramids, plazas, and palaces. The site has a large court for playing the 中美洲蹴球.[13]

The site is divided into various groups, with the Main Group and the Cemetery Group in the site core linked by a sacbe英语sacbe to the Sepulturas Group to the northeast.[14] Central Copán had a density of 1449 structures per square kilometer (3,750每平方英里), while in greater Copán as a whole this density fell to 143每平方公里(370每平方英里) over a surveyed area of 24.6平方公里(9.5平方英里).[15]

Main Group编辑

 
Stela M and the Hieroglyphic Stairway[16]

The Main Group represents the core of the ancient city and covers an area of 600乘300米(1,970乘980英尺). The main features are the Acropolis, which is a raised royal complex on the south side, and a group of smaller structures and linked plazas to the north, including the Hieroglyphic Stairway and the ballcourt英语Mesoamerican ballcourt. The Monument Plaza contains the greatest concentration of sculpted monuments at the site.[17]

The Acropolis was the royal complex at the heart of Copán. It consists of two plazas that have been named the West Court and the East Court. They are both enclosed by elevated structures.[14] Archaeologists have excavated extensive tunnels under the Acropolis, revealing how the royal complex at the heart of Copán developed over the centuries and uncovering several hieroglyphic texts that date back to the Early Classic and verify details of the early dynastic rulers of the city who were recorded on Altar Q hundreds of years later. The deepest of these tunnels have revealed that the first monumental structures underlying the Acropolis date archaeologically to the early 5th century AD, when K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' established the royal dynasty.[18] These early buildings were built of stone and adobe and were themselves built upon earlier earth and cobble structures dating to the predynastic period.[19] The two styles of building overlap somewhat, with some of the earthen structures being expanded during the first hundred years or so of the dynastic history of the city.[20] The early dynastic masonry buildings of the Acropolis included several with the Early Classic apron-molding style of Tikal and one built in the talud-tablero英语talud-tablero style associated with Teotihuacan, although at the time the talud-tablero form was in use at both Tikal and Kaminaljuyu英语Kaminaljuyu as well as in Central Mexico.[20]

Structure 10L-4 is a platform with four stairways situated by the Monument Plaza.[14]

 
A stone head at the bottom of Structure 10L-11

Structure 10L-11 is on the west side of the Acropolis. It encloses the south side of the Court of the Hieroglyphic Stairway and is accessed from it by a wide monumental stairway. This structure appears to have been the royal palace of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, the 16th ruler in the dynastic succession and the last known king of Copán. Structure 10L-11 was built on top of several earlier structures, one of which probably contains the tomb of his predecessor K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil. A small tunnel descends into the interior of the structure, possibly to the tomb, but it has not yet been excavated by archaeologists.[21] Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat built a new temple platform over his predecessor's tomb in AD 769. On top of this he placed a two-storey superstructure with a sculpted roof depicting the mythological cosmos. At each of its northern corners was a large sculpted Pawatun英语Pawatun (a group of deities that supported the heavens). This superstructure had four doorways with panels of hieroglyphs sculpted directly onto the walls of the building. A bench英语Copán Bench Panel inside the structure, removed by Maudslay in the nineteenth century and now in the British Museum's collection, once depicted the king's accession to the throne, overseen by deities and ancestors.[22][23]

Phases of Temple 16 (Structure 10L-16)
Phase King Date
Hunal K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' early 5th century AD
Yehnal K'inich Popol Hol mid-5th century AD
Margarita K'inich Popol Hol mid-5th century AD
Rosalila Moon Jaguar mid-6th century AD
Purpura Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil early 7th century AD
 
The West Court of Copán

Structure 10L-16 (Temple 16) is a temple pyramid that is the highest part of the Acropolis. It is located between the East and West Courts at the heart of the ancient city.[24] The temple faces the West Court within the Acropolis and is dedicated to K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', the dynastic founder. The temple was placed on top of the original palace and tomb of the king. It is the final version of a number of temples built on top of each other, as was common practice in Mesoamerica.[25] The earliest version of this temple is nicknamed Hunal; it was built in the talud-tablero style of architecture that was typical of Teotihuacan, with traces of brightly colored murals on the surviving traces of the interior walls. The king was buried in a vaulted crypt that was cut into the floor of the Hunal phase of the building, accompanied by rich offerings of jade英语Jade use in Mesoamerica. K'inich Popol Hol, son of the founder, demolished the palace of his father and built a platform on top of his tomb, named Yehnal by archaeologists. It was built in a distinctively Petén Maya style and bore large masks of K'inich Tajal Wayib', the sun god, which were painted red. This platform was encased within another much larger platform within a decade of its construction. This larger platform has been named Margarita and had stucco panels flanking its access stairway that bore entwined images of quetzals and macaws, which both form a part of K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo's name. The Margarita phase contained a tomb英语Margarita Tomb with the richly accompanied burial of an elderly woman nicknamed the "Lady in Red". It is likely that she was the widow of K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' and the mother of K'inich Popol Hol. The upper chamber of the Margarita phase temple was converted to receive offerings and the unusual Xukpi stone, a dedicatory monument used in one of the earlier phases, was reused in this later phase.[26]

 
Life-size reconstruction of the Rosalila temple at the site museum of Copán.[27]

One of the best preserved phases of Temple 16 is the Rosalila, built over the remains of five previous versions of the temple. Archaeologist Ricardo Agurcia discovered the almost intact shrine while tunneling underneath the final version of the temple. Rosalila is notable for its excellent state of preservation, including the entire building from the base platform up to the roof comb英语roof comb, including its highly elaborate painted stucco decoration. Rosalila features K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' placed at the centre of a mythological tableau, combining the founder of the dynasty with the sky deity英语List of Maya gods and supernatural beings Itzamna in avian form. The mythological imagery also includes anthropomorphic mountains, skeletons and crocodiles. Vents in the exterior were designed so smoke from incense being burned inside the shrine would interact with the stucco sculpture of the exterior. The temple had a hieroglyphic stone step with a dedicatory inscription. The stone step is less well preserved than the rest of the building, but a date in AD 571 has been deciphered. Due to the deforestation of the Copán valley, the Rosalila building was the last structure at the site to use such elaborate stucco decoration — vast quantities of firewood could no longer be spared to reduce limestone to plaster. A life-size copy of the Rosalila building has been built at the Copán site museum.[28]

Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil encased the Rosalila phase under a new version of the building in the early 8th century AD. An offering was made as part of the rites to terminate the old phase and included a collection of eccentric flint英语Eccentric flint (archaeology)s worked into the profiles of humans and gods, which were wrapped in blue-dyed textiles.[29]

Structure 10L-18 is on the southeastern side of the Acropolis and has been damaged by the erosion caused by the Copán River, having lost its eastern side. Stairs on the south side of the structure lead down to a vaulted tomb that was looted in ancient times and was probably that of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat. It was apparently plundered soon after the collapse of the Copán kingdom.[14] Unusually for Copán, the summit shrine had four sculpted panels depicting the king performing war dances with spear and shield, emphasizing the rising tensions as the dynasty came to its end.[1]

 
The interior doorway of Structure 10L-22

Temples 10L-20 and 10L-21 were probably both built by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil. They were lost to the Copán River in the early 20th century.[29]

Structure 10L-22 is a large building on the north side of the East Court, in the Acropolis, and faces onto it. It dates to the reign of Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil and is the best preserved of the buildings from his rule. The superstructure of the building has an interior doorway with an elaborate sculpted frame and decorated with masks of the mountain god Witz. The outer doorway is framed by the giant mask of a deity, and has stylistic similarities with the Chenes英语Chenes regional style of distant Yucatán.[30] The temple was built to celebrate the completion of the king's first K'atun in power, in AD 715, and has a hieroglyphic step with a first-person phrase "I completed my K'atun". The building symbolically represents the mountain where maize was created.[31]

Structure 10L-25 is in the East Court of the Acropolis. It covers a rich royal tomb nicknamed Sub-Jaguar by archaeologists. It is presumed to be the tomb of either Ruler 7 (B'alam Nehn), Ruler 8 or Ruler 9, who all ruled in the first half of the 6th century AD.[32]

Phases of Temple 26 (Structure 10L-26)
Phase King Date
Yax K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' early 5th century AD
Motmot K'inich Popol Hol mid-5th century AD
Papagayo Ku Ix mid-5th century AD
Mascarón Smoke Imix 7th century AD
Chorcha Smoke Imix 7th century AD
Esmeralda Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil early 8th century AD
N/A K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil mid-8th century AD

Structure 10L-26 is a temple that projects northwards from the Acropolis and is immediately to the north of Structure 10L-22. The structure was built by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil and K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, the 13th and 15th rulers in the dynastic succession. The 10-米(33-英尺) wide Hieroglyphic Stairway ascends the building on the west side from the courtyard below.[25] The earliest version of the temple, nicknamed Yax, was built during the reign of K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', the dynastic founder, and has architectural features (such as inset corners) that are characteristic of Tikal and the central Petén region.[33] The next phase of the building was built by Yax K'uk' Mo's son K'inich Popol Hol and is nicknamed Motmot. This phase of the structure was more elaborate and was decorated with stucco. Set under the building was the Motmot capstone, covering a tomb with the unusual Teotihuacan-style burial of a woman, accompanied by a wide variety of offerings that included animal bones, mercury, jade and quartz, along with three severed human heads, all of which were male.[34] Ku Ix built a new phase of the building over Motmot, nicknamed Papagayo.[35]

Smoke Imix demolished the Papagayo phase and ritually interred the broken remains of its sculpted monuments, accompanied by stone macaw heads from an early version of the ballcourt. He then built a pyramid over the earlier phases, nicknamed Mascarón by archaeologists. It in turn was developed into the Chorcha pyramid with the addition of a long superstructure with seven doorways at the front and back. Before a new building was built over the top, the upper sanctuary was demolished and a tomb was inserted into the floor and covered with 11 large stone slabs. The tomb contained the remains of an adult male and a sacrificed child. The adult's badly decayed skeleton was wrapped in a mat and accompanied by offerings of fine jade, including ear ornaments and a necklace of sculpted figurines. The burial was accompanied by offerings of 44 ceramic vessels, 美洲豹 pelts, spondylus shells, 10 paintpots and one or more hieroglyphic books, now decayed. There were also 12 ceramic incense burners with lids modeled into human figurines, thought to represent Smoke Imix and his 11 dynastic predecessors. The Chorcha building was dedicated to the long-lived 7th-century king Smoke Imix and it is therefore likely that the remains interred in the building are his.[36] Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil had sealed the Chorcha phase under a new version of the temple, nicknamed Esmeralda, by AD 710. The new phase bore the first version of the Hieroglyphic Stairway, which contains a lengthy dynastic history.[29] K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil built over the Esmeralda phase in the mid-8th century. He removed the Hieroglyphic Stairway from the earlier building and reinstalled it into his own version, while doubling the length of its text and adding five life-size statues of rulers dressed in the garb of Teotihuacano warriors, each seated on a step of the stairway. At the base of the stairway, he also raised Stela M, with his own image. The summit shrine of the temple bore a hieroglyphic text composed of full-figure hieroglyphs, each placed beside a similar glyph in faux-Mexican style, giving the appearance of a bilingual text.[37]

 
The final version of the ballcourt was dedicated by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in AD 738.[13]

The Hieroglyphic Stairway climbs the west side of Structure 10L-26. It is 10米(33英尺) wide and has a total of 62 steps. Stela M and its associated altar are at its base and a large sculpted figure is located in the centre of every 12th step. These figures are believed to represent the most important rulers in the dynastic history of the site. The stairway takes its name from the 2200 glyphs that together form the longest known Maya hieroglyphic text. The text is still being reconstructed, having been scrambled by the collapse of the glyphic blocks when the façade of the temple collapsed.[38] The staircase measures 21米(69英尺) long and was first built by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in AD 710, being reinstalled and expanded in the following phase of the temple by K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil in AD 755.[39]

The Ballcourt is immediately north of the Court of the Hieroglyphic Stairway and is to the south of the Monument Plaza.[25] It was remodeled by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil, who then demolished it and built a third version, which was one of the largest from the Classic period. It was dedicated to the great macaw deity and the buildings flanking the playing area carried 16 mosaic sculptures of the birds. The completion date of the ballcourt is inscribed with a hieroglyphic text upon the sloping playing area and is given as 6 January 738.[13]

The Monument Plaza or Great Plaza is on the north side of the Main Group.[25]

Sepulturas Group编辑

The Sepulturas Group is linked by a sacbe or causeway that runs southwest to the Monument Plaza in the Main Group. The Sepulturas Group consists of a number of restored structures, mostly elite residences that feature stone benches, some of which have carved decorations, and a number of tombs.[14]

The group has a very long occupational history, with one house having been dated as far back as the Early Preclassic. By the Middle Preclassic, large platforms were being built from cobbles英语Cobblestone architecture and several rich burials were made. By AD 800, the complex consisted of about 50 buildings arranged around 7 major courtyards.[40] At this time, the most important building was the House of the Bakabs, the palace of a powerful nobleman from the time of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat. The building has a high-quality sculpted exterior and a carved hieroglyphic bench inside. A portion of the group was a subdistrict occupied by non-Maya inhabitants from Central Honduras who were involved in the trade network that brought in goods from that region.[40]

Other groups编辑

The North Group is a Late Classic compound. Archaeologists have excavated fallen façades that bear hieroglyphic inscriptions and sculpted decoration.[14]

The Cemetery Group is immediately south of the Main Group and includes a number of small structures and plazas.[14]

纪念碑编辑

 
Altar Q depicts 16 kings in the dynastic succession of the city
 
Great Plaza of the Stellaes
 
Stela P, depicting K'ak' Chan Yopaat.[41]

Altar Q英语Copán Altar Q is the most famous monument at Copán.[42] It was dedicated by king Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat in AD 776 and has each of the first 16 kings of the Copán dynasty carved around its side. Each figure is depicted seated on his name glyph. A hieroglyphic text is inscribed on the upper surface, relating the founding of the dynasty in AD 426–427. On one side, it shows the dynastic founder K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' transferring power to Yax Pasaj.[43] Tatiana Proskouriakoff英语Tatiana Proskouriakoff first discovered the inscription on the West Side of Altar Q that tells us the date of the inauguration of Yax Pasaj. This portrayal of political succession tells us much about Early Classic Maya culture.

The Motmot Capstone is an inscribed stone that was placed over a tomb under Structure 10L-26. Its face was finely sculpted with portraits of the first two kings of the Copán dynasty, K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' and K'inich Popol Hol, facing towards each other with a double column of hieroglyphs between them, all contained within a quatrefoil frame. The frame and the hieroglyphic names of mythological locations underneath the feet of the two kings place them in a supernatural realm. The capstone bears two calendrical dates, in AD 435 and AD 441. The second of these is probably the date that the capstone was dedicated.[34]

The Xukpi Stone is a dedicatory monument from one of the earlier phases of the 10L-16 temple constructed to honor K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'. It bears the date of AD 437 and the names both K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' and K'inich Popol Hol, together with a possible mention of the Teotihuacan general Siyaj K'ak'. The monument has not been completely deciphered and its style and phrasing are unusual.[35] Originally it was used as a sculpted bench or step and the date on the monument is associated with the dedication of a funerary temple or a tomb, probably the tomb of K'inich' Yax K'uk' Mo', which was discovered underneath the same structure.[20]

Stela 2 was erected in the Great Plaza by Smoke Imix in AD 652.[44]

Stela 3 is another stela erected by Smoke Imix in the Great Plaza in AD 652.[44]

Stela 4 was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela 7 dates to the reign of K'ak' Chan Yopaat, and was erected to celebrate the K'atun-ending ceremony of AD 613. It was found in the western complex now underneath the modern village of Copán Ruinas. It bears a long hieroglyphic text that has been only partially deciphered.[41]

Stela 9 was found in the modern village of Copán Ruinas, where it had been erected on the site of a major Classic period complex 1.6公里(1英里) outside of the site core. It was dedicated by Moon Jaguar and dates to AD 564.[46]

Stela 10 was erected outside of the site core by Smoke Imix in AD 652.[44]

Stela 11 was originally an interior column from Temple 18, the funerary shrine of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat. When it was found, it was broken in two parts at the base of the temple. It portrays the king as the elderly Maya maize god英语Maya maize god and has imagery that seems to deliberately parallel the tomb lid of the Palenque king K'inich Janaab' Pakal, probably because of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat's close family ties to that city. The text of the column formed part of a longer text carved onto the interior walls of the temple and may describe the downfall of the Copán dynasty.[1]

Stela 12 was erected outside of the site core by Smoke Imix in AD 652.[44]

Stela 13 was erected outside the site core by Smoke Imix in AD 652.[44]

Stela 15 is dated to AD 524, during the reign of B'alam Nehn. Its sculpture consists entirely of hieroglyphic text, which mentions that king B'alam Nehn was ruling the city by AD 504.[47]

Stela 17 dates to AD 554, during the reign of Moon Jaguar. It originally stood in the nearby village of Copán Ruinas, which was a major complex in the Classic period.[46]

Stela 18 is a fragment of a monument bearing the name of K'inich Popol Hol. It was erected in the inner chamber of the 10L-26 temple.[48]

Stela 19 is a monument erected outside of the site core by Smoke Imix in AD 652.[44]

Stela 63 was dedicated by K'inich Popol Hol. Its sculpture consists purely of finely carved hieroglyphic texts and it is possible that it was originally commissioned by K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' with additional texts added to the sides of the monument by his son. The text contains the same date in AD 435 that appears on the Motmot Capstone. Stela 63 was deliberately broken, together with its hieroglyphic step, during the ritual demolishing of the Papagayo phase of Temple 26. The remains of the monuments were then interred in the building before the next phase was built.[49]

Stela A was erected in 731 by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil. It places his rulership among the four most powerful kingdoms in the Maya region, alongside Palenque, Tikal and Calakmul.[45]

Stela B was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela C was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela D was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela F was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela H was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in the early 8th century AD.[45]

Stela J was erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil in AD 702 and was his first monument. It stood at the eastern entrance to the city and is unusual in being topped by a sculpted stone roof, converting the monument into a symbolic house. It bears a hieroglyphic text that is woven into a criss-cross mat design to form a convoluted puzzle that must be read in precisely the right order to be understood.[45]

Stela M bears a portrait of K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil. It was raised at the foot of the Hieroglyphic Stairway of Temple 26 in AD 756.[45]

Stela N was dedicated by K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil in AD 761 and placed at the foot of the steps to Temple 11, which is believed to contain his burial.[39]

Stela P was originally erected in an unknown location and was later moved to the West Court of the Acropolis. It bears a long hieroglyphic text that has not yet been fully deciphered. It dates from the reign of king K'ak' Chan Yopaat and was dedicated in AD 623.[41]

See also编辑

Notes编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Martin & Grube 2000,第212頁.
  2. ^ Snow 2010,第168頁.
  3. ^ Kelly 1996,第277頁.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kelly 1996,第278頁.
  5. ^ Kelly 1996,第278-279頁.
  6. ^ Pezzati 2012,第5頁.
  7. ^ Kelly 1996,第279頁.
  8. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第335, 339頁; Fash et al 2005, p.268.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 引用错误:没有为名为Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 339的参考文献提供内容
  10. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第68, 335, 339頁.
  11. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  12. ^ Schuster 1998.
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Martin & Grube 2000,第205頁.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Sharer & Traxler 2006,第340頁.
  15. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第686頁.
  16. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 342的参考文献提供内容
  17. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第339–340頁.
  18. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第342頁.
  19. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第342, 344頁.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 20.2 Sharer & Traxler 2006,第344頁.
  21. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第334, 340頁; Martin & Grube 2000,第208頁.
  22. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 209的参考文献提供内容
  23. ^ British Museum Collection
  24. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第334, 340頁; Fasquelle & Fash 2005,第201頁.
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Sharer & Traxler 2006,第334, 340頁.
  26. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第193–196頁.
  27. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第199頁.
  28. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, pp. 198–199的参考文献提供内容
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 Martin & Grube 2000,第204頁.
  30. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第340頁; Martin & Grube 2000,第204頁.
  31. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, pp. 204–205的参考文献提供内容
  32. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第197–198頁.
  33. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 193的参考文献提供内容
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 194的参考文献提供内容
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 196的参考文献提供内容
  36. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 202的参考文献提供内容
  37. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, pp. 207–208的参考文献提供内容
  38. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006,第340頁; Martin & Grube 2000,第208頁.
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 208的参考文献提供内容
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 211的参考文献提供内容
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 41.2 Martin & Grube 2000,第200頁.
  42. ^ Fasquelle & Fash 2005,第201頁.
  43. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第210, 192頁; Sharer & Traxler 2006,第341頁.
  44. ^ 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 201的参考文献提供内容
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.5 45.6 45.7 45.8 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 203的参考文献提供内容
  46. ^ 46.0 46.1 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 198的参考文献提供内容
  47. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Martin & Grube 2000, p. 197的参考文献提供内容
  48. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第194–196頁.
  49. ^ Martin & Grube 2000,第194, 202頁.

References编辑

Agurcia Fasquelle, Ricardo; Fash, Barbara W. The Evolution of Structure 10L-16, Heart of the Copán Acropolis. E. Wyllys Andrews & William L. Fash (eds.) (编). Copán: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom. Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.: School of American Research Press. 2005: 201–237. ISBN 0-85255-981-X. OCLC 474837429. 
Drew, David. The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1999. ISBN 0-297-81699-3. OCLC 43401096. 
Kelly, Joyce. An Archaeological Guide to Northern Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press英语University of Oklahoma Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8061-2858-5. OCLC 34658843. 
Looper, Matthew G. New Perspectives on the Late Classic Political History of Quirigua, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press). 1999, 10 (2): 263–280. ISSN 0956-5361. OCLC 86542758. doi:10.1017/S0956536199101135. 
Looper, Matthew G. Lightning Warrior: Maya Art and Kingship at Quirigua. Linda Schele series in Maya and pre-Columbian studies. Austin: University of Texas Press英语University of Texas Press. 2003. ISBN 0-292-70556-5. OCLC 52208614. 
Martin, Simon; Grube, Nikolai. Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya. London and New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 2000. ISBN 0-500-05103-8. OCLC 47358325. 
Miller, Mary Ellen. Maya Art and Architecture. London and New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 0-500-20327-X. OCLC 41659173. 
Pezzati, Alessandro. The Excavation of the Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copan. Pennsylvania Museum Archives (University of Pennsylvania). April 2012, 54 (1): 4–6. 
Schuster, Angela M.H. Copán Tomb Looted. Archaeology Magazine. Vol. 51 no. 3 (美國考古研究所). May–June 1998 [2010-04-06]. 
Sharer, Robert J.; Sedat, David W.; et al. Early Classic Power in Copán. E. Wyllys Andrews & William L. Fash (eds.) (编). Copán: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom. Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.: School of American Research Press. 2005: 139–199. ISBN 0-85255-981-X. OCLC 474837429. 
Sharer, Robert J.; Traxler, Loa P. The Ancient Maya 6th (fully revised). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8047-4817-9. OCLC 57577446. 
Sheets, Payson D. The Southeast Frontiers of Mesoamerica. Adams, Richard E.W.; Macleod, Murdo J. (编). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. II: Mesoamerica, part 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000: 407–448. ISBN 0-521-35165-0. OCLC 33359444. 
Snow, Dean R. Archaeology of Native North America. New York: Prentice-Hall. 2010. ISBN 978-0-13-615686-4. OCLC 223933566. 
Stuart, David; Houston, Stephen D. Classic Maya Place Names. Studies in pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks). 1994, (33). OCLC 231630189. 
Stuart, David. Hieroglyphs and History at Copán. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology英语Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. 1996 [2010-04-10]. (原始内容存档于16 December 2008). 
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Maya Site of Copan. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. [8 April 2010]. 
Viel, René; Hall, Jay. Laporte,, J.P.; Escobedo, H.; Arroyo), B. , 编. El paisaje natural y cultural del valle de Copan (PDF). XV Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 2001 (Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología). 2002: 872–877 [2010-02-26]. (原始内容 (versión digital)存档于2011-09-14) (西班牙语). 

Further reading编辑

Fash, William L.; Agurcia Fasquelle, Ricardo. Contributions and Controversies in the Archaeology and History of Copán. E. Wyllys Andrews & William L. Fash (eds.) (编). Copán: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom. Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.: School of American Research Press. 2005: 3–32. ISBN 0-85255-981-X. OCLC 474837429. 
Fash, William L.; Andrews, E. Wyllys; Manahan, T. Kam. Political Decentralization, Dynastic Collapse, and the Early Postclassic in the Urban Center of Copán, Honduras. Arthur A. Demarest, Prudence M. Rice and Don S. Rice (eds.) (编). The Terminal Classic in the Maya lowlands: Collapse, transition, and transformation. Boulder: University Press of Colorado英语University Press of Colorado. 2005: 260–287. ISBN 0-87081-822-8. OCLC 61719499. 

External links编辑

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  您可以在維基文庫中查找此百科條目的相關原始文獻:

  1. [[:s:a poem by Clark Ashton Smith英语Clark Ashton Smith called Copan (1912)|a poem by Clark Ashton Smith英语Clark Ashton Smith called Copan (1912)]]
  2. [[:s:Copan|Copan]]

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Category:Copán英语Category:Copán Category:Maya sites in Honduras英语Category:Maya sites in Honduras Category:Maya Classic Period英语Category:Maya Classic Period Category:Copán Department英语Category:Copán Department Category:Populated places established in the 5th century英语Category:Populated places established in the 5th century Category:5th-century establishments in the Maya civilization英语Category:5th-century establishments in the Maya civilization Category:426 establishments英语Category:426 establishments Category:9th-century disestablishments in the Maya civilization英语Category:9th-century disestablishments in the Maya civilization Category:Former populated places in Honduras英语Category:Former populated places in Honduras Category:Pyramids in Honduras英语Category:Pyramids in Honduras