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Research Unix

(重定向自Version 5 Unix

Research Unix,是一系列的Unix作業系統的通稱,由貝爾實驗室的計算機科學研究中心(Computing Science Research Center,部門編號1127)研發,因此得名,共有10個版本。這些Unix系統運行在DEC PDP-7PDP-11VAX,以及Interdata 7/32與8/32電腦上。

歷史编辑

版本编辑

Manual Edition Release date Description
1st Edition Nov. 3, 1971 First edition of the Unix manual, based on the version that ran on the PDP-11 at the time. Includes the Thompson shell, mail, cp, and su. The operating system was two years old,[1] having been ported from the PDP-7 to the PDP-11/20 in 1970.
2nd Edition Jun. 12, 1972 Total number of installations at the time was 10, "with more expected", according to the preface of the manual.[2]:ii Includes echo and the first C compiler.[1]
3rd Edition Feb. 1973 Introduced the C programming language, pipes, crypt, and yacc. Commands are split between /bin and /usr/bin, requiring a search path[1] (/usr was the mountpoint for a second hard disk). Total number of installations was 16.
4th Edition Nov. 1973 First version written in C. Also introduced groups, grep, and printf.[1] Number of installations was listed as "above 20". The manual was formatted with troff for the first time. Version described in Thompson and Ritchie's CACM paper,[3] the first public exposition of the operating system.[1]
5th Edition Jun. 1974 Widely licensed to educational institutions.[4] Introduced find, dd,[1] and the sticky bit. Targeted the PDP-11/40 and other 11 models with 18 bit addresses. Installations "above 50".
6th Edition May 1975 Includes ratfor and bc.[1] First version to be also licensed to commercial users,[4] and to be ported to non-PDP hardware. May 1977 saw the release of MINI-UNIX, a "cut down" v6 for the low-end PDP-11/10.
7th Edition Jan. 1979 Includes the Bourne shell, cpio, sed, ioctl, awk, f77, spell, and stdio.[1] The ancestor of all modern UNIX systems and the last release of Research Unix to see widespread external distributions. Merged most of the utilities of PWB/UNIX with an extensively modified kernel with almost 80% more lines of code than V6. In February, a port called 32V was made to DEC's VAX hardware; 32V was the basis for 4BSD.
8th Edition Feb. 1985[來源請求] A modified 4.1cBSD for the VAX, with a System V shell and sockets replaced by Streams. Used internally, and only licensed for educational use.[5] The Blit graphics terminal became the primary user interface.[1] Added a network filesystem that allowed accessing remote computers' files as /n/hostname/path, and a regular expression library that introduced an API later mimicked by Henry Spencer's reimplementation.[6] First version with no assembly in the documentation.[1]
9th Edition Sep. 1986 Incorporated code from 4.3BSD; used internally. Featured a generalized version of the Streams IPC mechanism introduced in V8. The mount system call was extended to connect a stream to a file, the other end of which could be connected to a (user-level) program. This mechanism was used to implement network connection code in userspace.[7] Other innovations include make and Sam.[1] According to Dennis Ritchie, V9 and V10 were "conceptual": manuals existed, but no OS distributions "in complete and coherent form".[5]
10th Edition Oct. 1989 Last Research Unix. Although the manual was published outside of AT&T by Saunders College Publishing,[8] there was no full distribution of the system itself.[5] Novelties included graphics typesetting tools designed to work with troff, a C interpreter, animation programs, and several tools later found in Plan 9: the Mk build tool and the rc shell. V10 was also the basis for Doug McIlroy and James A. Reeds' multilevel-secure operating system IX.[9]

註釋编辑

  1. ^ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 McIlroy, M. D. A Research Unix reader: annotated excerpts from the Programmer's Manual, 1971–1986 (PDF) (Technical report). CSTR. Bell Labs. 1987. 139.  引用错误:带有name属性“reader”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  2. ^ Thompson, Ken; Ritchie, Dennis M. UNIX Programmer's Manual, Second Edition (PDF). Bell Telephone Laboratories. 1972-06-12. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2016-10-06). 
  3. ^ Ritchie, D. M.; Thompson, K. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. CACM. 1974, 17 (7): 365–375. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Fiedler, Ryan. The Unix Tutorial / Part 3: Unix in the Microcomputer Marketplace. BYTE. October 1983: 132 [2015-01-30]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Dennis Ritchie. [TUHS] Re: V7 UNIX on VAX 11/750. 2003-06-27 [2014-04-09]. (原始内容存档于2014-06-20). 
  6. ^ Henry Spencer. regexp(3). Newsgroupmod.sources. 1986-01-19 [2013-01-09]. Usenet: 1316@panda.UUCP. 
  7. ^ David L. Presotto; Dennis M. Ritchie. Interprocess Communication in the Ninth Edition Unix System. Software—Practice and Experience. 1990, 19. [永久失效連結]
  8. ^ Unix Tenth Edition Manual. Bell Labs. [2013-12-25]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-03). 
  9. ^ The IX Multilevel-Secure UNIX System.