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维基百科:内文引用

内文引用是维基百科引用列出方法之一,能让读者直接找到内容对应的可靠来源。内文引用标注方法不限,但中文维基百科条目多用序号角标列出。

内文引用一般标在句末或段末。内文引用来源可以是电子媒介,也可以是传统出版品,即书籍、杂志、百科全书、词典、网页都可接受。来源不要求媒介但必须可靠,即来源作者必须可信权威,出版流程必须可靠。对深究者而言,条目可由来源查证则更可信。

与内文引用相对的是一般引用,多直接罗列在文末;这种方式不直接指出内容对应哪条来源,但一般能部分或完全支持内容。所谓“一般引用”即并非具体支持哪句或哪段,而是在大体上支持条目。

目录

内文引用和维基百科编辑

不少维基百科条目都有内文引用,特色条目、优良条目和甲级条目还是强制的。来源格式指引介绍了几类内文引用方式,编者可以任选一种格式,但一篇条目必须统一用一种格式。

哈佛引用编辑

哈佛引注体系指以插入括号在内文列出来源。哈佛引注表现格式略有差别,如(作者, 时间)(作者, 时间:页码)等。哈佛引注一般直接列在文内,且置于标点之前,而完整的参考书目以字母顺序列在文末。

引用标记编辑

脚注系统由Cite.php架设,常用“<ref>标签”打出,这是最常用的来源引用方式。引用性脚注和解释性注释都可以用这套系统。编辑在<ref></ref>这组开闭标签中填写信息,系统会自动生成脚注并排号。编辑可直接输入wiki标记文本,也可用引用模板统一引用格式。编辑可在要显示脚注的地方输入<references />,也可换用更强大的{{Reflist}}模板。

If multiple citations for the same source are included in the article, and you are using <ref> tags, you can name the footnote to link to the same note repeatedly. To do this, add name="X" to the first <ref> tag, so that it looks like this: <ref name="X">.[1] As before, this will generate a number at the end of the sentence. Replace the "X" with any word to denote which source the computer should jump to when multi-linking like this.[1] Notice that this method of citing creates the same number for each entry cited with a <ref name="X"> citation. You can reuse the footnote repeatedly merely by typing the named <ref> tag with a slash following the name, like this: <ref name="X" />

"Reference" and "Note" templates编辑

This is an older citation method which is still sometimes used for citations and/or for explanatory text. This template creates superscript numbers in a text which, when clicked on, direct the reader to the citation at the bottom of the page.

Both the reference template and the note template consist of two parts: {{ref|word reference}} and {{note|word reference}}. If you wish to use these templates then begin by placing the {{ref| }} template in the article where you wish to cite the presented information. After the "|" include a small word reference for the citation; this will tell the computer which link it should jump to when a reader clicks on the article citation.

Here's a working example: to cite the book The Navy, insert a reference tab—{{ref| }}—at the end of this sentence and place the word "Navy1" after the vertical line so that it looks like this:{{ref|Navy1}}.[1] Notice how a small number now appears at the end of the previous sentence; this contains the information that will be cited in the reference section. Click on the small number at the end of the previous sentence to continue with the example.

Although the default formatting matches standard <ref>...</ref> tags, it also allows you to use any letter, number of symbol you choose. As a result, this system is popular with people who want to manually number or format the superscripted footnote markers for citations and/or explanatory notes. For example, using this system, you can easily produce a footnote that looks like this or That. For more information about using this method, see Template:Ref/doc.

Hyperlinking/embedded links编辑

Information obtained from the internet is cited by creating a hyperlink at the end of the relevant clause, sentence, or paragraph. Enclose the link in square brackets: [ at the beginning and ] at the end.

For example, if the citation is the Main page of the English Wikipedia, type:

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page].

This will create a blue, numbered, superscript box at the end of the sentence or paragraph, like the one seen at the end of this sentence.[2]

Citations may be labeled with a more informative tag than a simple auto-assigned number by placing the label within the square brackets,separated from the link itself, like:

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page The Wikipedia Main Page]

which produces:

The Wikipedia Main Page

Then insert the full citation to the References section at the end of the article (See WP:CITE for more information). This style is particularly susceptible to link rot and is discouraged.

The examples above are only illustrative, and it is important to note that Wikipedia verifibility policy specifies that "Articles and posts on Wikipedia, or other websites that mirror Wikipedia content, may not be used as sources."

Manual citations编辑

Occasionally, editors will hand-number sources. This is very easy to create—you just type a number or other symbol at the end of the relevant passage, and a matching number before the bibliographic citation—but it is often difficult to maintain if the article is expanded or rearranged.

Some lists, such as Line of succession to the British throne, use a similar system with a code letter or word to indicate which source the information is taken from.

Legal citations编辑

Some fields provide full citations inline, without a unified list of sources. For example, a standard legal citation system that refers to the Griswold v. Connecticut case will simply type Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 480 (1965). at the end of the material supported by the case.

Similarly, some scientific citation systems provide references by typing only the abbreviated name of the journal, the volume number, and the page numbers at the end of a passage.

Both of these systems are valid inline citation formats—they both permit the reader to identify which source supports which material in the article—but they are uncommon on Wikipedia.

In-text attribution编辑

In-text attribution sometimes involves naming the source in the sentence itself:

Alice Jones said in her 2008 book, The Sun is Really Big...

This is a valid inline citation for Wikipedia's purposes—it permits the reader to identify which source supports the material—but it is normally used in addition to some other system of inline citation for quotations, close paraphrasing, and anything contentious or distinctive, where the editor wants to draw attention to the source's name in the article.

必须内文引用的情况编辑

按维基百科内容方针要求,下列四种情况必须内文引用可靠来源:

此外内容有内文引用不代表满足其他方针,比如改述内容极似原文就有侵犯著作权之虞,即便有内文引用可靠来源也不合格。

虽说编辑基本将全盘内文引用当底限,但来源方针并不强求四类情况外的内容。无内文引用的内容可能由一般参考支撑,也可能内容本身就是来源。如果你诚心检查了来源但还没找到,可在讨论页问讯或请求来源。


理论上,如条目没有以上四类内容,编辑者可以选择不标明来源,不管是内文引用还是一般参考都一样。针对其他类型的内容,方针只要求当一个有动力、受过教育的人尝试通过如网络搜寻或图书馆等方法寻找已出版且可靠的来源时,这些内容的来源是可以被找到的。可是,当条目不再是小作品时,要避免以上四类内容是非常困难的。

Editors are expected to use good judgment when determining whether material has been challenged. For example, section blanking may be considered vandalism, rather than a demand for inline citations.

内容是否遭质疑有赖于编者公正判断,比如清空段落可能会当破坏处理。

来源密度编辑

Wikipedia does not have a "one inline citation per sentence" or "one citation per paragraph" rule, even for featured articles. Wikipedia requires inline citations based on the content, not on the grammar and composition elements. Some articles (e.g., articles about controversial people) will require inline citations after nearly every sentence. Some sections (e.g., dense technical subjects) may even require more than one inline citation per sentence. Others may not require any inline citations at all.

For example, one inline citation is sufficient for this paragraph:

  Education researcher Mary Jones says that there are three kinds of students. The first group is made up of students who do their homework as soon as they receive the assignments. The second group contains students who do their homework at the last possible second. The third group is composed of students who didn't even realize that they were supposed to do the assignment (Jones 2010, page 2).

Everything in that paragraph deals with the same, single subject from the same source and can therefore be supported by a single inline citation. The inline citation could be placed at any sensible location, but the end of the paragraph is the most common choice. If a subsequent editor adds information from another source to this paragraph, then it is the subsequent editor's job to organize the citations to make their relationship between the text and the sources clear, so that we maintain text-source integrity.

Text–source integrity编辑

Using inline citations, even for statements that are not absolutely required to have inline citations, helps Wikipedia maintain text–source integrity. Using inline citations allows other people to quickly determine whether the material is verifiable.

The best distance between the material and the citation is a matter of judgment. If a word or phrase is particularly contentious, an inline citation may be added next to it within a sentence, but adding the citation to the end of the sentence or paragraph is usually sufficient. Editors should exercise caution when adding to or rearranging material to ensure that text-source relationships are maintained.

References/Notes section编辑

This section is where the bibliographic citations to the reliable sources that were used to build the article content are presented. The most popular choice for the section heading's name is "References"; other articles use "Notes", "Footnotes", or "Works cited" (in diminishing order of popularity). Several alternate titles ("Sources", "Citations", "Bibliography") may also be used, although each is problematic: "Sources" may be confused with source code in computer related articles or ways to acquire a product; "Citations" may be confused with official awards or a summons to court; "Bibliography" may be confused with a list of printed works by the subject of a biography.

Sometimes more than one section is needed to organize the citations. For example, articles using shortened citations may use one section for full bibliographic citations and a separate section for shortened citations.

A reference section should not be confused with external links or further reading sections, neither of which contain sources that were used to build the article content. For more information and the relevant style guide on reference sections, see Wikipedia:Citing sources.

Reference section and "Reference" and "Note" templates编辑

^ Notice the underlined arrow to the far left, this is the result of the {{note| reference. At the moment, the note reference looks like this: {{note|Navy1}}. Recall that the above link you clicked on to get here was titled {{ref|Navy1}}, so this is the correct corresponding link. To create the underlined arrows like the one that took you here place a {{note}} template followed by the correct word description for the given information. Place the reference material you are referring to after the completed {{note}} template, and ensure that the {{ref}} and {{note}} templates are correctly linking to each other by checking the spelling. There are several templates that can help with the citation format. For example, the full reference for the Navy citation should read as follows:

     ^ Naval Historical Foundation. The Navy. Barnes & Noble Inc, China ISBN 0767076218X</nowiki>

Inline citations that make use of the reference and note templates do not generate numbers for the corresponding links; this can be corrected by placing a "#" before inserting the template text, as shown below:

     #{{note|Navy1}} Naval Historical Foundation. ''The Navy''. Barnes & Noble Inc, China ISBN 0767076218X

This will generate a full-sized number which should correspond with the number clicked on for an information's source, as in the example below:

  1. ^ Naval Historical Foundation. The Navy. Barnes & Noble Inc, China ISBN 0767076218X

In the case of the above example, the number 1. now appears before the citation to the book The Navy. Recall that the number you clicked on to get here was a 2, so the link and its number do not correspond; in this case, it is because of the hyperlink discussed in the previous section. Since this article exists merely to explain the function of the reference and note templates this is not of concern; however, if this problem occurs in an actual article it means that something has caused the numbers and sources to miss-match. Complications of this sort are why templated citations are recommended; a carefully structured set of manually arranged citations can be made a mess by the innocent later interpolation of additional content and citations.

Reference Section and Footnotes编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Notice how the letters now appear at the left hand side in front of the link. This is because each of these two entries share the same name, in this case "Example", and have been configured to link to one spot to save room.

If you are using the Template:Fnote method (the <ref> and </ref> tags), all you have to do when creating a reference section is insert the simple <references /> code or the {{reflist}} template, which automatically generates a list of references for the inline citations provided in the article.

Inline citations and article classes编辑

There is no specified amount of inline citation that an article must have before being eligible for nomination as a Featured Article, Good Article, or (when applicable) A-Class article, and no particular style is favored over any other. The best advice is on the FAC page: an article should be tightly written and comprehensive. If one inline citation is all it takes to make it tightly written that's ok; if you need 100 inline citations that's ok too.

See also编辑