^In Thai script, the signs ◌ะ are respectively used to indicate a glottal stop after the vowel.
^More diphthongs occur in the pattern /Vw/ or /Vj/: /aj, aːj, aw, aːw, iw, uj, uːj, ew, eːw, ɛːw, ɤːj, oːj, ɔːj, iow, uɛj, ɯɛj/.
^Each first element represents a Thai diphthong, with /a/ as the ending vowel (according to Tingsabadh, Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. Thai. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 1993, 23 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746.).
^In contrast to Pinyin romanization for Mandarin, Tones for Central Thai romanization uses diacritics in the same way as the IPA.
^Unlike common Sinitic languages, Southern Thai language are only exception from Thai languages which not be fixed-tones language, instead they are pitch-accent language, every tones depend on initial consonant's class, vowel length and final consonant's length. Every tone marks in Thai script only apply for Central Thai and be ineffective to Southern Thai