均衡飲食是健康的必要條件。人類日常的飲食成分含有七大營養素,分別是碳水化合物蛋白質脂肪礦物質纖維素維生素。這七大營養素的攝取量必須平衡,否則就會引起身體不適,出現過重肥胖營養不良、或其他各種因為缺乏某種特定礦物質抗生素而引發的疾病。

許多營養的食物

特定條件 編輯

除了一般人群的膳食建議外,還有許多特定的飲食方案主要是為了促進特定人群的健康,比如患有高血壓(如低鈉飲食或更具體的DASH飲食)的人,或者超重肥胖的人(控制體重飲食)。其中一些方案在正常人群中的有益效果可能多多少少有一些證據支持。[來源請求]

糖尿病 編輯

健康的飲食結合積極的運動可以幫助糖尿病患者控制血糖水平。[1] 美國疾病控制與預防中心(US CDC)建議患有糖尿病的人計劃規律均衡的膳食,增加非澱粉蔬菜的攝入量,減少添加糖和精製穀物的攝入,以及注重食用整食而不是高度加工的食物。[2] 通常,糖尿病患者和患有風險的人被鼓勵增加纖維攝入。[3]

高血壓 編輯

低鈉飲食對高血壓患者有益。2008年發表的科克倫回顧總結指出,長期(四周以上)的低鈉飲食可以有效地降低血壓,無論是在高血壓(高血壓)患者還是正常血壓患者中都有效。[4]

DASH飲食(膳食方法以控制高血壓為主)是由國家心臟、肺部和血液研究所NIH,美國政府機構的一部分)推廣的飲食方案,用於控制高血壓。該計劃的主要特點是限制的攝入量,[5] 並且飲食還一般鼓勵攝入堅果、全穀物、魚類、家禽、水果和蔬菜,同時減少紅肉、甜食和糖的攝入。它還富含「鉀、鎂和鈣以及蛋白質」。

地中海飲食,包括限制紅肉的消費和在烹飪中使用橄欖油,也被證明可以改善心血管結果。[6]

肥胖 編輯

治療肥胖最有效的方法是減重手術[7] 但是,超重肥胖的人可以結合健康飲食和體育鍛煉來試圖減重,儘管這只在短期內(最多一年)特別有效,之後一些體重通常會恢復。[8][9][10] 對六項隨機對照試驗的薈萃分析發現,飲食類型(低脂低碳水化合物低熱量)之間沒有差異,所有研究中都達到2至4千克的減重效果。[11]

與麩質相關的疾病 編輯

麩質是一種在小麥和相關穀物中(包括大麥黑麥燕麥以及它們所有的種類和雜交品種,如小黑麥喀姆特小麥三粒小麥[12] 對於那些患有麩質相關疾病,包括乳糜瀉非乳糜瀉性麩質敏感症麩質性共濟失調疱疹樣皮炎小麥過敏的人來說,無麩質飲食是唯一可用的治療方法。[13][14][15][16]

癲癇 編輯

生酮飲食是一種由醫療團隊管理時,用於減少成人和兒童癲癇發作的治療方法。[17]

參考文獻 編輯

  1. ^ Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity - NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. [2023-05-13]. (原始內容存檔於2023-12-05) (美國英語). 
  2. ^ CDC. Meal Planning. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2023-04-19 [2023-05-13]. (原始內容存檔於2023-11-14) (美國英語). 
  3. ^ Evert, Alison B.; Dennison, Michelle; Gardner, Christopher D.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Lau, Ka Hei Karen; MacLeod, Janice; Mitri, Joanna; Pereira, Raquel F.; Rawlings, Kelly; Robinson, Shamera; Saslow, Laura; Uelmen, Sacha; Urbanski, Patricia B.; Yancy, William S. Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report. Diabetes Care. May 2019, 42 (5): 731–754. ISSN 1935-5548. PMC 7011201 . PMID 31000505. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014. 
  4. ^ He, FJ; MacGregor, GA. MacGregor, Graham A , 編. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004, 1 (3): CD004937. PMID 15266549. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004937. 
  5. ^ Your Guide To Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH (PDF). [2009年6月8日]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2013年7月29日). 
  6. ^ Walker C, Reamy BV. Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: what is the evidence?. Am Fam Physician. April 2009, 79 (7): 571–7. PMID 19378874. 
  7. ^ Colquitt, JL; Pickett, K; Loveman, E; Frampton, GK. Surgery for weight loss in adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014年8月8日, 8 (8): CD003641. PMC 9028049 . PMID 25105982. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4. 
  8. ^ Thom, G; Lean, M. Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health? (PDF). Gastroenterology (Review). May 2017, 152 (7): 1739–1751 [2023-08-20]. PMID 28214525. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.056. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2018-07-19). 
  9. ^ NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Obesity in Adults (US). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Bethesda (MD). 1998. 
  10. ^ Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press. adderall weight loss before and after pictures. Biogerontology. [2017-02-26]. (原始內容存檔於2023-08-20). 
  11. ^ Strychar I. Diet in the management of weight loss. CMAJ. January 2006, 174 (1): 56–63. PMC 1319349 . PMID 16389240. doi:10.1503/cmaj.045037. 
  12. ^ Biesiekierski, JR. What is gluten?. J Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review). 2017, 32 (Suppl 1): 78–81. PMID 28244676. doi:10.1111/jgh.13703 . Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as 「gluten.」 Derivatives of these grains such as triticale and malt and other ancient wheat varieties such as spelt and kamut also contain gluten. The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease.  
  13. ^ Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms. Gut. January 2013, 62 (1): 43–52. PMC 3440559 . PMID 22345659. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. 
  14. ^ Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G. Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders. Dig. Dis. (Review). 2013, 31 (1): 57–62. PMID 23797124. S2CID 14124370. doi:10.1159/000347180. The only treatment for CD, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a GFD. 
  15. ^ Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R. Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1 March 2006, 23 (5): 559–75. PMID 16480395. S2CID 9970042. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x . For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment. 
  16. ^ Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. June 2015, 29 (3): 477–91. PMID 26060112. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. A recently proposed approach to NCGS diagnosis is an objective improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations assessed through a rating scale before and after GFD. Although a standardized symptom rating scale is not yet applied worldwide, a recent study indicated that a decrease of the global symptom score higher than 50% after GFD can be regarded as confirmatory of NCGS (Table 1) [53]. (…) After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD [49]. 
  17. ^ What is the Ketogenic Diet. www.eatright.org. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2019年4月 [2023-08-20]. (原始內容存檔於2021-04-28).