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泰姬陵的伊万

伊万波斯語ایوان‎,拉丁转写:eyvān;阿拉伯语:إيوان‎;Iwan、ivan;土耳其语:eyvan[1][2])是波斯伊斯兰建筑中常见的一种长方形、带有拱顶的空间,三面围墙,一面开放。它由波斯人发明,3世纪时在帕提亚帝国治下达到成熟。在波斯语中伊万的入口門面又称“皮西塔克”(pishtaq)。其上常绘有繁复的几何花纹和伊斯兰书法[3][4]。伊万的大小和形状并不完全固定。

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Wright (1992), p. 508
  2. ^ Boas (2010), p. 366
  3. ^ Dictionary of Islamic architecture: Pishtaq 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2011-06-29. archnet.org.
  4. ^ Pishtaq Britannica.
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  • Godard, André. L'origine de la Madrasa, de la Mosquée et du Caravansérail Àquartre Iwans. Ars Islamica. 1951, 15. 
  • Keall, Edward J. Some thoughts on the early iwan. (编) Dickran Kouymjian. Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconography, Epigraphy, and History, Studies in Honor of George C. Miles. Beirut: American University of Beirut. 1974: 123–130. 
  • Kurz, Otto. The Date of the Ṭāq i Kisrā. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 1941, 73 (1): 37–41. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00093138. 
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  • Rabbat, Nasser O. The Citadel of Cairo: a New Interpretation of Royal Mamluk Architecture. Geneva: AKTC. 1989. 
  • Rawson, Jessica, Chinese Ornament: The Lotus and the Dragon, 1984, British Museum Publications, ISBN 0714114316
  • Reade, Julian. Christopher Scarre, 编. The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient world The Great Monuments and How they were Built. Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 0-500-05096-1. 
  • Sitwell, Sacheverell. Arabesque and Honeycomb. Robert Hale. 1957. 
  • Smith, W. Stevenson; Simpson, William Kelly. The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. Pelican history of art 14. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1998. ISBN 9780300077476. 
  • Upton, Joseph M. The Expedition to Ctesiphon, 1931–1932 (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 1932, 27 (8): 188–197. 
  • Warren, John; Fethi, Ihsan. Traditional Houses in Baghdad. Coach Publishing House. 1982. ISBN 9780902608016. 
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