偽同源詞

偽同源詞(英語:False cognate),指兩個发音和涵意都相同、相关或相似,但詞源不同的詞。例如各語言中對父母的稱呼,單以母親來說,可拿中文(漢藏語系)的「媽媽」比較意大利語(印歐語系)的mamma、格魯吉亞語高加索語系)的მამა(mama)。互不相干的語言均以[m]、[b]、[a](還有[p]、[h])這幾個音組成的字來作父母的稱呼,只是因為這幾個是最容易發的音,呀呀學語的嬰兒無意發出,而為人父母的總以為嬰孩最初說的「話」是用來稱呼父母親,因此以這幾個音構成的字,容易成為父母的指稱。[1][2][3][4]

此外,同一语言中也可以有偽同源詞:例如英语的和daydiary就发音类似,但分别来自古英语的dæg和拉丁语的diārium(两者又分别来自原始印歐語的和dʰeǵʰ-dyḗws)。[5][6][7]

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Jakobson, R. (1962) "Why 'mama' and 'papa'?" In Jakobson, R. Selected Writings, Vol. I: Phonological Studies, pp. 538–545. The Hague: Mouton.
  2. ^ Nichols, J. (1999) "Why 'me' and 'thee'?"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Historical Linguistics 1999: Selected Papers from the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, 9–13 August 1999, ed. Laurel J. Brinton, John Benjamins Publishing, 2001, pages 253-276.
  3. ^ Bancel, P.J. and A.M. de l'Etang. (2008) "The Age of Mama and Papa"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) Bengtson J. D. In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of anthropology. (John Benjamins Publishing, Dec 3, 2008), pages 417-438.
  4. ^ Bancel, P.J. and A.M. de l'Etang. (2013) "Brave new words"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) In New Perspectives on the Origins of Language, ed. C. Lefebvre, B. Comrie, H. Cohen (John Benjamins Publishing, Nov 15, 2013), pages 333-377.
  5. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition.
  7. ^ Campbell, Lyle; Mixco, Mauricio J. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press. 2007: 29. ISBN 978-0-7486-2378-5.