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南國山河

十世紀的越南诗歌

南國山河》(越南語Nam quốc sơn hà)是一首創作於10世紀時期的越南。該詩被稱為「越南第一個獨立宣言」,聲明越南統治者對自己領土的主權。此詩真實作者的身份仍然存在爭議。根據《嶺南摭怪》的說法,是在981年第一次宋朝入侵時協助黎大行的神仙創作,[1]大越史記全書》則說是宋越熙寧戰爭期間,李常傑率領的越軍軍士在張將軍祠中高聲朗讀出來。[2]

此詩以神諭的格式寫作,[3]並被認為是越南文學中最為人所知的作品之一。[4]它成為早期獨立戰爭的一個象徵性的讚美詩,在1076年第二次宋朝入侵時,由李常傑如月江防線出於同樣鼓舞士氣的目的而朗誦出來。[5]在近期,當中國開始在越南歷史的海域進行石油勘探時,此詩常常在越南市民出於顯示反華情緒而被吟誦出來。[來源請求]

內容编辑

以漢越音朗讀《南國山河》

南國山河南帝居,
截然定分在天書。
如何逆虜來侵犯,
汝等行看取敗虚。

評價编辑

  • 越共學者評價這首詩是「李常傑以全民族的名義重申了民族的神聖獨立權和平等權,嚴重警告外來侵略者。這首詩就像在外國統治一千多年後的第一個獨立宣言那樣被載入史冊。」[6]
  • 2016年5月24日,時任美國總統歐巴馬訪問越南,在河內發表演講時,以英語引用了這首詩,並稱這首詩表达了“所有越南人民不屈的精神”,“大国不能欺负小国”。[7]

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ 嶺南摭怪/龍眼、如月二神傳
  2. ^ 大越史記全書/本紀卷之三
  3. ^ Essays on Literature and Society in Southeast Asia 1981 Page 305 "The "Nam-quốc sơn-hà" poem had the form of an oracle"
  4. ^ Nguyễn Đức Sự Some Features on Vietnamese Buddhism in the Lý Dynasty Religious Studies Review, No. 02-2010 Institute of Religious Studies, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences 2011 "Besides the well-known works of celebrities and of the Lý court as Chiếu dời đô (Royal edict on the transfer of the capital), Nam quốc sơn hà (Mountains and Rivers of the empire of the South), Văn lộ bố khi đánh trống, Di chiếu lúc lâm chung (King's last will at point of death), etc. There were many Zen poems in the literature of the Lý dynasty. Almost poets and writers in the Lý dynasty were Zen masters."
  5. ^ Patricia M. Pelley Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002 Page 268 "The relevant works are Nam quốc sơn ha, Lý Thường Kiệt's famous affirmation of Vietnamese identity; Hịch tướng sĩ, the plea from Trần Hưng Ðạo to fight against the Mongols; Quốc ngữ thi tập, Chu Văn An's collection of poems in the national language..."
  6. ^ 越南社會科學委員會《越南歷史》,200頁。
  7. ^ 奥巴马所说的越南“独立宣言”《南国山河》真相

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