受害者心態

受害者心態是一種後天的人格特質,其中一個人傾向於承認或認為自己是他人負面行為的受害者,並且在面對這種情況的相反證據時表現得好像是這種情況。 受害者的心態取決於清晰的思維過程和歸因。在某些情況下,那些具有受害者心態的人實際上已經成為他人不法行為的受害者,或者因自己的過錯而遭受了其他不幸。 然而,這種不幸並不一定意味著一個人會通過發展一種普遍而普遍的受害者心態來做出回應,在這種心態中,一個人經常或不斷地認為自己是一個受害者。[1]

該術語還用於指將自己的不幸歸咎於他人的不當行為的傾向,這也被稱為受害主義。[2][3]

例如,受害者心態主要是從家庭成員和童年時期的情況中發展而來的。同樣,犯罪分子經常進行受害者思維,認為自己是道德的,從事犯罪只是作為對不道德世界的反應,而且還認為當局不公平地將他們單獨挑出來進行迫害。[4]

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ The Victim Mentality – What It Is & Why You Use It. Counselling Blog. HarleyTherapy.co.uk (Harley Therapy Ltd.- Psychotherapy & Counselling in London). April 26, 2016 [August 7, 2018].  已忽略未知参数|orig-date= (帮助)
  2. ^ Harvey, Annelie J.; Callan, Mitchell J. Getting "Just Deserts" or Seeing the "Silver Lining": The Relation between Judgments of Immanent and Ultimate Justice. Abstract. PLOS ONE. July 18, 2014, 9 (7): e101803. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j1803H. PMC 4103766 . PMID 25036011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101803 . Observers engaged in more ultimate justice reasoning for a "good" victim & greater immanent justice reasoning for a "bad" victim. Participants' construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self-worth, w/ greater immanent justice reasoning for participants with lower self-esteem. 
  3. ^ Kaminer, Wendy. The Culture of 'Victimism' Gives Way to a Culture of Bullying. The Atlantic. July 30, 2010 [August 7, 2018]. 
  4. ^ Bar-Tal, Daniel; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; Schori, Noa; Gundar, Ayelet. A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts (PDF). Sequential stages: the process of victimization; Victim-to-victimizer cycle. International Review of the Red Cross. June 2009, 91 (874): 234; 256 [August 7, 2018]. S2CID 53594158. doi:10.1017/S1816383109990221. those who perceive themselves as a victim attempt to gain social validation by persuading others (family, friends, authorities, etc.) to recognize that the harm occurred & that they are victims...the sense of collective victimhood is related to negative affective consequences of fear, reduced empathy & anger, to cognitive biases such as interpretation of ambiguous information as hostile & threatening, to emergence of the belief that violent action taken is morally justified, to reduced moral accountability & finally to a tendency to seek revenge. 

參考書目编辑