# 可塑性面积单元问题

## 背景

MAUP引起的区群偏差有两个分別的效应，二者通常在汇总数据分析时同时发生。其中，尺度效应（scale effect）会导致不同聚合水平（径向距离）下统计结果的差异。因此，变量间的关联取决于数据面积单元的大小。通常，面积单位越大，相关性趋于更强。而区划效应（zoning effect）是指将数据在相同尺度（区域形状）下，区域的不同的划分组合方式会导致的相关统计量的变化。[5]

## 参考資料

1. ^ MAUP | Definition – Esri Support GIS Dictionary. support.esri.com. [2017-03-09]. （原始内容存档于2017-03-12）.
2. ^ Geography, US Census Bureau. Geographic Boundary Change Notes. www.census.gov. [2017-02-24]. （原始内容存档于2019-03-13） （美国英语）.
3. ^ Gehlke & Biehl 1934
4. Openshaw 1983
5. ^ Fotheringham, A. S.; Rogerson, P. A. The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). The SAGE handbook of spatial analysis. Sage. 2008: 105–124. ISBN 978-1-4129-1082-8.
6. ^ Holt D, Steel D, Tranmer M, Wrigley N. (1996). “Aggregation and ecological effects in geographically based data.” “Geographical Analysis” 28:244{261
7. Swift, A., Liu, L., and Uber, J. (2008) "Reducing MAUP bias of correlation statistics between water quality and GI illness." Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 32, 134–148
8. ^ Larsen, J. (2000). "The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: A problem or a source of spatial information?" PhD thesis, Ohio State University.
9. ^ Reynolds, H. (1998). "The Modifiable Area Unit Problem: Empirical Analysis By Statistical Simulation." PhD thesis, Department of Geography University of Toronto, http://www.badpets.net/Thesis页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆
10. ^ Swift, A. (2017). "Crime mapping data simulation", https://app.box.com/s/a84w16x7hffljjvkhtlr72eisj4qiene页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆
11. Viegas, José Manuel; Martinez, L. Miguel; Silva, Elisabete A. Effects of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem on the Delineation of Traffic Analysis Zones. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. January 2009, 36 (4): 625–643. doi:10.1068/b34033.

## 參考文獻

• Arbia, Giuseppe. Spatial data configuration in then statistical analysis of regional economic and related problems. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1988.
•   This article contains quotations from Modifiable areal unit problem页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆） at the GIS Wiki, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) license.
• Gehlke, C. E.; Biehl, Katherine. Certain effects of grouping upon the size of the correlation coefficient in census tract material. Journal of the American Statistical Association. March 1934, 29 (185A): 169–170. JSTOR 2277827. doi:10.2307/2277827.
• Openshaw, Stan. The modifiable areal unit problem. Norwick: Geo Books. 1983. ISBN 0860941345. OCLC 12052482.
• Unwin, D. J. (1996). "GIS, spatial analysis and spatial statistics." Progress in Human Geography. 20: 540–551.
• Cressie, N. (1996). “Change of Support and the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem.” “Geographical Systems“, 3:159–180.
• Viegas, J., E.A. Silva, L. Martinez (2009a). “Effects of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem on the Delineation of Traffic Analysis Zones” “Environment and Planning B – Planning and Design“, 36(4): 625–643.
• Viegas, J., E.A. Silva, L. Martinez (2009a). “A traffic analysis zone definition: a new methodology and algorithm” “Transportation“. 36 (5): 6“, 36 (5): 6 .