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四甲基碘化铵

化合物

四甲基碘化铵是一种季铵盐,化学式为[(CH3)4N]I,为无色晶体。

四甲基碘化铵
英文名 Tetramethylammonium iodide
别名 碘化四甲基铵
碘化四甲铵
识别
CAS号 75-58-1  ✓
EINECS 200-881-3
性质
化学式 C4H12IN
摩尔质量 201.05 g·mol−1
外观 无色晶体
密度 1.829 g·cm−3
熔点 ≥241 °C(分解)[1]
>360 °C(分解)[2]
溶解性 微溶于水,难溶于氯仿和乙醚
危险性
H-术语 H315, H319, H335
P-术语 P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P362, P403+P233, P501
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

制备编辑

四甲基碘化铵可由三甲胺碘甲烷的气相反应生成。[3]甲醇、碘甲烷和28%氨溶液反应,[4]或者N,N-二甲基甲酰胺和碘甲烷在25%的碱溶液(氨、氢氧化钠或氢氧化钾)中反应,都可以得到该季铵盐。[5]

结构编辑

四甲基碘化铵属四方晶系空间群P4/nmm,晶胞参数a=7.9643 Å, b=5.7550 Å(30 °C)。[6]

性质及用途编辑

四甲基碘化铵和叠氮化亚铊英语Thallium azide反应,可以得到四甲基叠氮化铵:[7]

[(CH3)4N]I + TlN3 → [(CH3)4N]N3 + TlI

它与氰化亚铜反应,可以得到配合物[(CH3)4N][Cu(SCN)I]。[8]它和碘化铅γ-丁内酯中反应,可以得到具有钙钛矿结构的[(CH3)4N][PbI3]。[9]

它和路易斯酸共同使用,可用作四羰基钴钠催化的三甲胺羰基化反应的引发剂。[10]

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Philip N. James, H. R. Snyder. Synthesis and Reactions of α-Cyanogramine 1. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1960-02, 82 (3): 589–593 [2019-06-14]. ISSN 0002-7863. doi:10.1021/ja01488a022 (英语). 
  2. ^ O. E. Zhuravlev, V. M. Nikol’skii, L. I. Voronchikhina. Thermal stability of quaternary ammonium hexafluorophosphates and halides. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2013-06, 86 (6): 824–830 [2019-06-14]. ISSN 1070-4272. doi:10.1134/S1070427213060062 (英语). 
  3. ^ F. A. Petrachkov. Kinetics of formation of a quaternary ammonium salt from gaseous components. Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii, 1954. 28: 1408-1416. ISSN: 0044-4537
  4. ^ Esteban Szabo. Formation of tetramethylammonium iodide. Farm. chilena, 1952. 26: 295-297. CAN47: 13862
  5. ^ D. Dzharov; Atanas Iovchev. Preparation of tetramethylammonium iodide(德文). Oesterreichische Chemiker-Zeitung, 1967. 68 (9): 305-306. ISSN: 0369-7061.
  6. ^ Alex Xenopoulos, Martina Ralle, Anton Habenschuss, Bernhard Wunderlich. X-ray powder diffraction data and thermal expansion of N(CH 3 ) 4 Br and N(CH 3 ) 4 I. Powder Diffraction. 1996-09, 11 (3): 246–249 [2019-06-14]. ISSN 0885-7156. doi:10.1017/S0885715600009192 (英语). 
  7. ^ Kukushkin, I. K.; Velikanova, E. V.; Zlobin, V. A. Methods for preparation of quaternary ammonium azides(俄文). Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya, 2010. 53 (3): 108-110. ISSN: 0579-2991
  8. ^ Xi Liu, Kun-Lin Huang, Guo-Ming Liang, Ming-Sheng Wang, Guo-Cong Guo. Molecular design of luminescent halogeno-thiocyano-d10 metal complexes with in situ formation of the thiocyanate ligand. CrystEngComm. 2009, 11 (8): 1615 [2019-06-14]. ISSN 1466-8033. doi:10.1039/b902121c (英语). 
  9. ^ Qiu, Yu; Guan, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Linqin; Yan, Fengpo; Yan, Qiong. High-​stability hybrid perovskite photoelectric material consisting of organic amine cation, metal cation and halogen anion for solar cell device or electroluminescent device[P]. 2014. CN 104447349 A
  10. ^ Yizhu Lei, Rui Zhang, Wenjia Han, Hui Mei, Yanlong Gu, Bo Xiao, Guangxing Li. Promotion effects of Lewis acid/(CH3)4NI on [Co(CO)4]ˉ-catalyzed C–N bond activation in the carbonylation of trimethylamine. Catalysis Communications. 2013-08, 38: 45–49 [2019-06-14]. doi:10.1016/j.catcom.2013.04.017. (原始内容存档于2018-06-30) (英语).