斯基泰人

历史上的民族
(重定向自塞西亞

斯基泰人古希臘語ΣκύθηςΣκύθοι;英語: Scythian)也譯为斯基泰人斯基提亞人西古提人[1]叔提雅人[2]西徐亞人塞西亞人,為古代在東歐大草原中亞一帶居住與活動、操東伊朗語支的游牧民族或半游牧民族,他們的領土被稱為斯基提亞;古代波斯人稱之為塞克人(古波斯语:Sakā,也译为薩迦人),共分為戴尖帽塞克人、飲豪麻汁塞克人、海邊塞克人[3]。中國《史記》、《漢書》記錄的塞種可能源自這個民族[4]

斯基泰人
Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.png
斯基泰人公元前1世纪的分布范围
總人口
不详
分佈地區
今烏克蘭
今俄羅斯南部
今亞塞拜然
中亚
今阿富汗東部
今巴基斯坦
今印度北部
今中国大陸西北部
相关族群
印度-伊朗人
斯基泰武士
斯基泰金饰

主流學術界一般認同斯基泰人為伊朗人的分支[5],他們的語言為東伊朗語支[6],並信仰一種前祆教時期古伊朗宗教的變種宗教[7]。為最早使用騎兵的民族之一[8],在西元前8世紀取代了辛梅里亞人成為東歐大草原的霸主[9],在這段時期斯基泰人及其分支民族幾乎統治了整個歐亞大草原,從喀爾巴阡山脈一直到陝甘寧盆地都是他們的地盤[10][11],創造了人類歷史上首個游牧帝國[9][12]。盤據在今烏克蘭和南俄一帶的斯基泰人自稱「蘇格洛提」,由稱為「斯基泰皇室」的游牧戰士貴族所帶領。

在西元前7世紀,斯基泰人與西米里亞人一起跨越高加索山脈並頻密地洗劫中東地區,為當地的政治發展充當了重要角色[9][12]。大約在西元前650到630年,斯基泰人短暫支配了位於伊朗高原西部的米底王國[13][14],將勢力範圍擴展至埃及邊境[8]。在失去米底王國的控制權後,斯基泰人持續介入中東的地區事務,並在西元前612年的在尼尼微戰役中扮演領導角色,摧毀了亞述帝國。斯基泰人隨後頻密的與波斯帝國發生衝突,但在西元前4世紀先被馬其頓重挫[8],隨後逐漸被另一支伊朗民族薩爾馬提亞人征服[15]。西元前2世紀後期,他們位於克里米亞半島的首都拿波羅利斯被本都王國的米特里達梯六世佔領,他們的地盤被合併到博斯普魯斯王國[16],並大幅度被希臘化。在西元3世紀,斯基泰人和薩爾馬提亞人一同被同為伊朗民族的奄蔡人統治,並一直被哥德人侵擾。中世紀早期,大量的斯基泰人和薩爾馬提亞人被同化和吸收到早期斯拉夫民族中[17][18]

斯基泰人在絲綢之路中扮演重要角色,促進了希臘、波斯、印度和中華文明的商業繁榮[19]。在城市定居的金屬工匠為斯基泰人所打造的飾品別具風格,後世稱之為斯基泰風藝術[20]

名稱编辑

字源编辑

語言學家Oswald Szemerényi研究過各種可能是Scythian的同義詞後梳理出以下幾個字: 「Skuthes」(Σκύθης)、「Skudra」、「Sug(u)da」和「Saka」。[21]

  • 「Skuthes」(Σκύθης)、「Skudra」、「Sug(u)da」派生自印歐語字根「(s)kewd-」意思是「推進、射擊」(與英語的shoot同源)。「*skud-」是同一個字元音變換後的產物。Szemerényi還原了斯基泰人的自稱為「*skuda」(大致上是「射手」的意思,也與英語的shooter同源)。這派生出古希臘語「Skuthēs」Σκύθης(「Skuthai」 Σκύθαι的眾數)以及阿卡德語「Aškuz」。古亞美尼亞語: սկիւթ「skiwtʰ」是基於愛歐塔化的希臘語而生。後來斯基泰語中的輔音由/d/變成/l/,由「*skuda」變成「*skula」,成為了後來希臘語詞彙「Skolotoi」 (Σκώλοτοι)的字源,也就是希羅多德所提到斯基泰皇室成員的自稱,其他的聲音改變還產生了「Sogdia」也就是粟特。[22]
  • 「Saka」一字則源於古波斯語:「Sakā」,古希臘語:Σάκαι、拉丁語: 「Sacae」、梵語:शक「Śaka」皆源自伊朗語的「sak-」,「前進、遨遊」也就是「游牧」的意思。儘管關係密切,但薩迦人(Saka)還是和生活在歐洲的斯基泰人有分別,他們主要生活在歐亞大草原的北方和東方以及塔里木盆地。[23][24][25]

現代術語编辑

在學術界,斯基泰人一詞一般指涉在西元前7世紀到西元3世紀間活動在東歐大草原的的伊朗游牧民族[26]

斯基泰人與幾個生活在他們東方的民族都共享了相似的文化包括武器、馬俱和藝術,被稱為「斯基泰三角」。[27][28]共享相同特徵的文化常被稱為「斯基泰文化」,而這些民族也被稱為「斯基泰人」。[29][30]與斯基泰文化有聯繫的民族不止斯基泰人自己,還包括一些截然不同的民族[31],諸如辛梅里安人、馬薩革泰人、薩迦人、薩爾馬提亞人和各式各樣的森林草原民族,[27][29]諸如早期斯拉夫人、波羅的人和芬蘭-烏戈爾人。[32][33]在這廣義的「斯基泰人」下,一般都會以「古典斯基泰人」、「西斯基泰人」、「歐洲斯基泰人」或「旁狄斯基泰人」作區別。[29]

斯基泰學學家Askold Ivantchik沮喪地指出,「斯基泰人」一詞廣義和狹義混著來用會造成巨大的混亂。因此他對以「斯基泰人」一詞來指西元前7世紀到西元3世紀間統治東歐大草原的伊朗民族有所保留。[27] 狄宇宙寫道,「廣義的斯基泰的定義根本廣到不行」,認為以「早期游牧民族」代替更為可取。[28]

語言编辑

斯基泰語屬於印歐語系東伊朗語支[34],但是否所有物質文化受他們影響的族群都說同樣的語言目前尚未確定。而與古斯基泰語最接近的是奧塞梯語[35]

薩爾馬提亞語、于闐語和薩迦語都有可能斯基泰語所產生的方言連續體[36]

在中世紀早期,斯基泰語因為大量的斯基泰人及其分支族群在隨著斯拉夫大遷徙和突厥大遷徙時被征服和同化而被取代,但大量的詞彙則因此而流入斯拉夫諸語和突厥諸語中。目前唯一存活的是西部分支的奧塞梯語[37]

外表编辑

根據目前考古所得的藝術品所見,斯基泰人是明顯的西歐亞人[38]。而根據歐亞各地區的古文明在西元前5到西元4世紀的歷史文獻記載,斯基泰人都是白皮膚、紅髮、藍或綠眼的[38][39][38][40][38][38][41]

基因编辑

2017年,兩份分別發表在《自然-通訊》和《科學報告》期刊的報告指出,斯基泰人的母系血統與東歐的塞那亞文化相同,但同時亦吸收了東歐亞人的母系血統[42][29]

Krzewińska et al. (2018)發現,塞那亞文化的男性成員身上的Y染色體屬於單倍群R1a1a1(R1a-M417),而這個單倍群在青鋼時代擴張到幾乎整個歐亞。相比之下,6具目前在東歐發現的斯基泰人的男性古屍卻屬於常見於西歐人的R1b1a1a2(R1b-M269)並與阿凡納謝沃文化、安德羅諾沃文化有緊密關係。作者認為,斯基泰人並非塞那亞文化的直接後代,但他們都源自於顏那亞文化。而斯基泰人與其他物質文化相似的遠東族群在基因上有著巨大差異,因此可以判斷他們是獨立的族群,只是在物質文化上可能有著共同的源頭,傳播位置大約在東歐大草原東部到烏拉爾山脈南麓[43]

2019年,一份研究物質文化與斯基泰人相似的南西伯利亞歐迪貝爾文化的古屍的報告發表在《人類遺傳學》期刊,指出亞歐迪貝爾文化的男性Y染色體屬於單倍群R1a,其中有兩個是R1a1a1b2(R1a-Z93),並檢驗到有混合東亞人基因,報告結果表示,斯基泰人與歐迪貝爾文化的族群在父系血統上完全不同[44]

参见编辑

附註或參考编辑

  1. ^ 聖經和合本歌羅西書3:11
  2. ^ 《思高聖經》〈哥羅森書〉3:11:「在這一點上,已沒有希臘人或猶太人,受割損的或未受割損的,野蠻人、叔提雅人、奴隸、自由人的分別,而只有是一切並在一切內的基督。」
  3. ^ 聯合國教科文組織 (UNESCO) 著,徐文堪、芮傳明譯:《中亞文明史》,第二卷 (北京:中國對外出版翻譯公司,2001),頁8-12、20-23。
  4. ^ 周雲. 百家廊:尖帽塞人西域影響大. 3月2日 [2008-03-08]. 
  5. ^
    • Ivantchik 2018: "Scythians, a nomadic people of Iranian origin [...]"
    • Harmatta 1996,第181页: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples."
    • Sulimirski 1985,第149–153页: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranian stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" [...]"
    • West 2002,第437–440页: "[T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock [...]"
    • Rolle 1989,第56页: "The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranian peoples."
    • Rostovtzeff 1922,第13页: "The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranians, like the Scythians themselves."
    • Minns 2011,第36页: "The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian."
  6. ^
    • Dandamayev 1994,第37页: "In modern scholarship the name 'Sakas' is reserved for the ancient tribes of northern and eastern Central Asia and Eastern Turkestan to distinguish them from the related Massagetae of the Aral region and the Scythians of the Pontic steppes. These tribes spoke Iranian languages, and their chief occupation was nomadic pastoralism."
    • Davis-Kimball,Bashilov & Yablonsky(1995),第91页: "Near the end of the 19th century V.F. Miller (1886, 1887) theorized that the Scythians and their kindred, the Sauromatians, were Iranian-speaking peoples. This has been a popular point of view and continues to be accepted in linguistics and historical science [...]"
    • Melykova 1990,第97–98页: "From the end of the 7th century B.C. to the 4th century B.C. the Central- Eurasian steppes were inhabited by two large groups of kin Iranian-speaking tribes – the Scythians and Sarmatians [...]"
    • Melykova 1990,第117页: "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group [...]"
    • Sulimirski 1985,第149–153页: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] The main Iranian-speaking peoples of the region at that period were the Scyths and the Sarmatians [...]"
    • Jacobson 1995,第36–37页: "When we speak of Scythians, we refer to those Scytho-Siberians who inhabited the Kuban Valley, the Taman and Kerch peninsulas, Crimea, the northern and northeastern littoral of the Black Sea, and the steppe and lower forest steppe regions now shared between Ukraine and Russia, from the seventh century down to the first century B.C [...] They almost certainly spoke an Iranian language [...]"
  7. ^ Harmatta, János. Zürcher, Erik , 编. The Scythians. UNESCO. 1996: 181-182. ISBN 923102812X. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Scythian. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019]. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Hambly, Gavin. History of Central Asia: Early Western Peoples. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019]. 
  10. ^ Beckwith 2009,第117页: "The Scythians, or Northern Iranians, who were culturally and ethnolinguistically a single group at the beginning of their expansion, had earlier controlled the entire steppe zone."
  11. ^ Beckwith 2009,第377–380页: "The preservation of the earlier form. *Sakla. in the extreme eastern dialects supports the historicity of the conquest of the entire steppe zone by the Northern Iranians—literally, by the 'Scythians'—in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age [...]"
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Beckwith 2009,第11页
  13. ^ Young, T. Cuyler. Ancient Iran: The kingdom of the Medes. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019]. 
  14. ^ Beckwith 2009,第49页
  15. ^ Sarmatian. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019]. 
  16. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Harmatta_181的参考文献提供内容
  17. ^ Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002,第39页: "Indeed, it is now accepted that the Sarmatians merged in with pre-Slavic populations."
  18. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997,第523页: "In their Ukrainian and Polish homeland the Slavs were intermixed and at times overlain by Germanic speakers (the Goths) and by Iranian speakers (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans) in a shifting array of tribal and national configurations."
  19. ^ Beckwith 2009,第58–70页
  20. ^ Scythian art. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019]. 
  21. ^ Szemerényi 1980
  22. ^ K. E. Eduljee. Histories by Herodotus, Book 4 Melpomene [4.6]. Zoroastrian Heritage. [October 20, 2020]. 
  23. ^ Kramrisch, Stella. Central Asian Arts: Nomadic Cultures. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. [September 1, 2018]. The Śaka tribe was pasturing its herds in the Pamirs, central Tien Shan, and in the Amu Darya delta. Their gold belt buckles, jewelry, and harness decorations display sheep, griffins, and other animal designs that are similar in style to those used by the Scythians, a nomadic people living in the Kuban basin of the Caucasus region and the western section of the Eurasian plain during the greater part of the 1st millennium bc. 
  24. ^ Lendering, Jona. Scythians / Sacae. Livius.org. February 14, 2019 [October 4, 2019]. 
  25. ^ Unterländer, Martina. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications. March 3, 2017, 8: 14615. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814615U. PMC 5337992. PMID 28256537. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. During the first millennium BC, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin [...] Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture [...] 
  26. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Definition的参考文献提供内容
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 引用错误:没有为名为Ivantchik的参考文献提供内容
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 Di Cosmo 1999,第891页: "Even though there were fundamental ways in which nomadic groups over such a vast territory differed, the terms "Scythian" and "Scythic" have been widely adopted to describe a special phase that followed the widespread diffusion of mounted nomadism, characterized by the presence of special weapons, horse gear, and animal art in the form of metal plaques. Archaeologists have used the term "Scythic continuum" in a broad cultural sense to indicate the early nomadic cultures of the Eurasian steppe. The term "Scythic" draws attention to the fact that there are elements – shapes of weapons, vessels, and ornaments, as well as lifestyle – common to both the eastern and western ends of the Eurasian steppe region. However, the extension and variety of sites across Asia makes Scythian and Scythic terms too broad to be viable, and the more neutral "early nomadic" is preferable, since the cultures of the Northern Zone cannot be directly associated with either the historical Scythians or any specific archaeological culture defined as Saka or Scytho-Siberian."
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Unterländer, Martina. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications. March 3, 2017, 8: 14615. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814615U. PMC 5337992. PMID 28256537. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture and referred to as ‘Scythians'. For simplification we will use ‘Scythian' in the following text for all groups of Iron Age steppe nomads commonly associated with the Scythian culture. 
  30. ^ Watson 1972,第142页: "The term 'Scythic' has been used above to denote a group of basic traits which characterize material culture from the fifth to the first century B.C. in the whole zone stretching from the Transpontine steppe to the Ordos, and without ethnic connotation. How far nomadic populations in central Asia and the eastern steppes may be of Scythian, Iranic, race, or contain such elements makes a precarious speculation."
  31. ^ Bruno & McNiven 2018: "Horse-riding nomadism has been referred to as the culture of 'Early Nomads'. This term encompasses different ethnic groups (such as Scythians, Saka, Massagetae, and Yuezhi) [...]"
  32. ^ West 2002,第437–440页
  33. ^ Davis-Kimball,Bashilov & Yablonsky(1995),第33页
  34. ^ Lubotsky 2002,第190页
  35. ^ Ladislav Zgusta, "The old Ossetian Inscription from the River Zelenčuk" (Veröffentlichungen der Iranischen Kommission = Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 486) Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1987. ISBN 3-7001-0994-6 in Kim, op.cit., 54.
  36. ^ Lubotsky 2002,第189–202页
  37. ^ Testen 1997,第707页
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 Day 2001,第55–57页
  39. ^ Hippocrates 1886, 20 "The Scythians are a ruddy race because of the cold, not through any fierceness in the sun's heat. It is the cold that burns their white skin and turns it ruddy."
  40. ^ Callimachus 1921, Hymn IV. To Delos. 291 "The first to bring thee these offerings fro the fair-haired Arimaspi [...]"
  41. ^ Pliny 1855, Book VI, Chap. 24 ". These people, they said, exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes [...]"
  42. ^ Juras, Anna. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians. Nature Communications. March 7, 2017, 7: 43950. Bibcode:2017NatSR...743950J. PMC 5339713. PMID 28266657. doi:10.1038/srep43950. 
  43. ^ Krzewińska, Maja. Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads. Nature Communications. 2018-10-03. 
  44. ^ Mary, Laura. Genetic kinship and admixture in Iron Age Scytho-Siberians. Human Genetics. March 28, 2019, 138 (4): 411–423. PMID 30923892. doi:10.1007/s00439-019-02002-y. The absence of R1b lineages in the Scytho-Siberian individuals tested so far and their presence in the North Pontic Scythians suggest that these 2 groups had a completely different paternal lineage makeup with nearly no gene flow from male carriers between them  已忽略未知参数|s2cid= (帮助)

參考文獻编辑

延伸閱讀编辑

  • Alekseev, A. Yu. et al., "Chronology of Eurasian Scythian Antiquities Born by New Archaeological and 14C Data". Radiocarbon, Vol .43, No 2B, 2001, p 1085–1107.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (1984). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Typological Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture (Parts I and II). Tbilisi State University.
  • Harmatta, J., "Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians", Acta Universitatis de Attila József Nominatae. Acta antique et archaeologica Tomus XIII. Szeged 1970, Kroraina.com
  • (德文) Jaedtke, Wolfgang. Steppenkind, Piper Verlag, Munich 2008. ISBN 978-3-492-25146-4. This novel contains detailed descriptions of the life of nomadic Scythians around 700 BC.
  • Johnson, James William, "The Scythian: His Rise and Fall", Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Apr., 1959), pp. 250–257, University of Pennsylvania Press, JSTOR
  • Lebedynsky, I. (2001). "Les Scythes: la civilisation nomade des steppes VIIe–IIIe siècle av. J.-C." / Errance, Paris.
  • Lebedynsky Iaroslav (2006) "Les Saces", Editions Errance, ISBN 2-87772-337-2
  • Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language Archeology and Myth. Thames and Hudson. Chapter 2; and pages 51–53 for a quick reference.
  • Newark, T. (1985). The Barbarians: Warriors and wars of the Dark Ages. Blandford: New York. See pages 65, 85, 87, 119–139.
  • Renfrew, C. (1988). Archeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European origins. Cambridge University Press.
  • Rolle, Renate, The world of the Scythians, London and New York (1989).
  • (俄文) Rybakov, Boris. Paganism of Ancient Rus. Nauka, Moscow, 1987
  • Torday, Laszlo (1998). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-900838-03-6.

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