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寬恕,或饒恕原諒,是一種自願行爲,其中行爲人(即受害者)放棄針對加害方的消極感情(復仇等),甚至還能為對方祝好[1][2][3]。相較之下,赦免則是由特定的社會代表(如法官)宣佈不再追究加害方的責任,未必代表受害人的主觀意見[2]。但在法律上寬恕實際也有效力,如債權人可借此放棄對借債者的追究[4][5]。寬恕常被視為一種美德宗教學心理學社會學等學科會研究其作用及原理。

目录

研究编辑

 
亲密关系中與寬恕近似的情感

心理學上尚未對寬恕的定義達成一致,不過最起碼它是一個延續的“過程”,同時心理學家已經提出了一系列描述此過程的模型[6]。此外還有研究注重寬恕程度在人際間的差異,如神經質和易怒的人即使在很長一段時間之後也很難原諒加害者,甚至會籌劃報復行爲[7]

而容易原諒別人的人通常活得更加開心、健康[8]。有研究顯示這類人的循環系統神經系統都比不容易原諒他人者更加健康[9][10]斯坦福大學的弗雷德·拉斯金(Fred Luskin)博士發現可以通過學習使得人更加寬容,從而更加健康[11][12]

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参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Graham, Michael C. Facts of Life: ten issues of contentment. Outskirts Press. 2014: 268. ISBN 978-1-4787-2259-5. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 American Psychological Association. Forgiveness: A Sampling of Research Results. (PDF). 2006 [2009-02-07]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-06-26). 
  3. ^ What Is Forgiveness? The Greater Good Science Center, University of California, Berkeley
  4. ^ DEBT FORGIVENESS OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms (2001)
  5. ^ Loan Forgiveness Glossary, US Department of Education
  6. ^ Cordova, J., Cautilli, J., Simon, C. & Axelrod-Sabtig, R (2006). Behavior Analysis of Forgiveness in Couples Therapy. IJBCT, 2(2), Pg. 192 BAO 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-03-09.
  7. ^ Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Day, L., Kon, T. W. H., Colley, A., and Linley, P. A. (2008). Personality predictors of levels of forgiveness two and a half years after the transgression. 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1088-1094.
  8. ^ Forgiving (Campaign for Forgiveness Research). 2006 [2006-06-19]. 
  9. ^ Van Oyen, C. Witvilet, T.E. Ludwig and K. L. Vander Lann, "Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: Implications for Emotions, Physiology and Health," Psychological Science no. 12 (2001):117-23
  10. ^ S. Sarinopoulos, "Forgiveness and Physical Health: A Doctoral Dissertation Summary," World of Forgiveness no. 2 (2000): 16-18
  11. ^ Learningtoforgive.com. Learningtoforgive.com. 2014-06-20 [2016-05-25]. 
  12. ^ Worldwide Forgiveness Alliance. Forgivenessday.org. 2015-11-13 [2015-12-23]. (原始内容存档于2005-02-13). 
  • Balancing the Scales of Justices with Forgiveness and Repentance, Randall J. Cecrle, 2007, ISBN 1-60266-041-7
  • The Power of Forgiveness, Marcus G. 2011, Sapients.Net
  • Radical Forgiveness: Making Room for the Miracle, Colin Tipping, 1997, ISBN 0-9704814-1-1
  • Forgiving and Not Forgiving: Why Sometimes It's Better Not to Forgive, Jeanne Safer, 2000, ISBN 0-380-79471-3
  • Forgiveness: a Philosophical Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2007), by Charles Griswold. ISBN 978-0-521-70351-2.
  • Hein, David. "Regrets Only: A Theology of Remorse." The Anglican 33, no. 4 (October 2004): 5-6.
  • Hein, David. Austin Farrer on Justification and Sanctification. The Anglican Digest. 2007, 49 (1): 51–54. 
  • Konstan, David, Before Forgiveness: The Origins of a Moral Idea (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  • Kramer, J. and Alstad D., The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, 1993, ISBN 1-883319-00-5
  • Lampert, K.(2005); Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan; ISBN 1-4039-8527-8
  • Fred Luskin, Ph.D. Forgive for Good: A Proven Prescription for Health and Happiness (Harper, 2002)
  • Murphy, J. and Hampton, J. Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  • Norlock, K. Forgiveness from a Feminist Perspective (Lexington Books, 2009).
  • Pettigrove, G. Forgiveness and Love (Oxford University Press, 2012).
  • Schmidt D. (2003); The Prayer of Revenge: Forgiveness in the Face of Injustice; ISBN 0-7814-3942-6
  • Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life, Susan Forward, 1990.
  • The Railway Man: A POW's Searing Account of War, Brutality, and Forgiveness, Eric Lomax,

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