打开主菜单

寡突膠質細胞

(重定向自少突胶质细胞
寡突膠質細胞作用模式圖

寡突膠質細胞(Oligodendrocyte)是一種神經膠質細胞,最早由西班牙醫學家皮奥·戴尔·里奥·霍尔特加英语Pío del Río Hortega於1921年報導[1]。寡突膠質細胞的主要功能是在中樞神經系統中,爲神經元的軸突提供保護和支持。寡突膠質細胞的細胞質突起部會與軸突結合,並將之包裹,同時可分泌髓磷脂,形成保護軸突的髓鞘(myelin sheath)結構,其功能與外周神經系統的施萬細胞相似[2]。根據統計,一個寡突膠質細胞大約可以和50個軸突結合[3]。從發育上說,寡突膠質細胞分化自寡突膠質細胞祖細胞英语Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell(Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell),在人胚胎發育中是中樞神經細胞中最晚出現的一種細胞[4][5]

參見编辑

參考编辑

  1. ^ Gill, AS; DK Binder. Wilder Penfield, Pío del Río-Hortega, and the discovery of oligodendroglia. Neurosurgery. May 2007, 60 (5): discussion 940–8. PMID 17460531. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000255448.97730.34. 
  2. ^ Fields, Douglas. White Matter Matters. Scientific American. 18 February 2008, 298 (March 2008): 54–61 [2012-04-29]. Bibcode:2008SciAm.298c..54D. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0308-54. 
  3. ^ Baumann, Nicole; Pham-Dinh, Danielle. Biology of Oligodendrocyte and Myelin in the Mammalian Central Nervous System. Physiological Reviews. 2001-04-01, 81 (2): 871–927. ISSN 0031-9333. PMID 11274346. doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.871 (英语). 
  4. ^ Thomas, JL; Spassky, N; Perez Villegas, EM; Olivier, C; Cobos, I; Goujet-Zalc, C; Martínez, S; Zalc, B. Spatiotemporal development of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic brain. Journal of Neuroscience Research. Feb 15, 2000, 59 (4): 471–6. PMID 10679785. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(20000215)59:4<471::AID-JNR1>3.0.CO;2-3. 
  5. ^ Cameron-Curry, Patrizia; Le Douarin, Nicole M. Oligodendrocyte precursors originate from both the dorsal and the ventral parts of the spinal cord. Neuron. December 1995, 15 (6): 1299–1310. PMID 8845154. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90009-8.