巫術

一種企圖以超自然、神秘方式影響世界的方法

巫術巫术(英語:witchcraft)是一種基於聯想和相信的原始神秘儀式。[1][2]

概要编辑

巫術是迄今為止人類所知的最早的神秘儀式。原始時代的人類在宗教儀式誕生前所使用的便是巫術。 最古老的巫術又被稱作交感巫術,本質上巫術來源於聯想,有著相似律和接觸律兩大基本原則,而這也是後續的宗教儀式及各類神秘誕生的基礎

巫術的歷史编辑

巫術的起源编辑

最晚在八萬年前左右的尼安德塔人已經開始安葬死者,並擁有靈魂的意識及信仰前,人類已有巫術儀式

獵殺女巫编辑

獵巫從12世紀起至16世紀達到最高峰的時期,當時基督教已經傳入一段時間了,並且成為歐洲的主流宗教。源自於對於未知的恐懼和對巫術的害怕導致獵殺女巫。在高峰的時代,獵巫審判是於世俗法院審判。

1485年兩位德國修士著作的獵巫手冊《女巫之槌》面世後,令整個歐洲社會把獵巫的矛頭指向女性。

不過這一時期的女巫概念泛指可以使用神秘的女性,而不再是專指使用古老巫術儀式者。

巫術的分類编辑

交感巫術编辑

交感巫術分為兩種巫術,一種是遵循同類相生原則由結果逆推得到原因的順勢巫術英语Homoeopathic magic,另一種則是舉凡曾經接觸過的兩種東西,以後即使分開了,也能夠互相感應,這叫做接觸巫術,因此施術於腳印、衣物,這些腳印、衣物也能與人體互相感應,受害者將受影響。通常較少見單純的接觸巫術,接觸巫術往往會和順勢巫術一同使用。

模擬巫術编辑

模擬巫術又稱順勢巫術,是可以模擬某物、某狀態或者模擬結果順勢得出原因的巫術,像是在古代巫師通過模擬慶祝新生兒誕生的過程來幫助生產就是一種順勢巫術。

巫師的分類编辑

作為古老巫術儀式的使用者,巫師可大致分為男巫(覡)和女巫。

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1997: 519. ISBN 978-0-297-00220-8. 'At this day', wrote Reginald Scot in 1584, 'it is indifferent to say in the English tongue, "she is a witch" or "she is a wise woman".' Nevertheless, it is possible to isolate that kind of 'witchcraft' which involved the employment (or presumed employment) of some occult means of doing harm to other people in a way which was generally disapproved of. In this sense the belief in witchcraft can be defined as the attribution of misfortune to occult human agency. A witch was a person of either sex (but more often female) who could mysteriously injure other people. 
  2. ^ Hutton, Ronald. The Witch: A History of Fear, from Ancient Times to the Present. Yale University Press. 2017: ix. What is a witch? The standard scholarly definition of one was summed up in 1978 by a leading expert in the anthropology of religion, Rodney Needham, as 'someone who causes harm to others by mystical means'. In stating this, he was self-consciously not providing a personal view of the matter, but summing up an established scholarly consensus [...] When the only historian of the European trials to set them systematically in a global context in recent years, Wolfgang Behringer, undertook his task, he termed witchcraft 'a generic term for all kinds of evil magic and sorcery, as perceived by contemporaries'. Again, in doing so he was self-consciously perpetuating a scholarly norm. That usage has persisted till the present among anthropologists and historians...