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序列主义

音樂方法或作曲技巧

序列主义(serialism),也称序列音乐,是20世纪出现的一种音乐创作手法,进而发展成为一种现代音乐类型和流派。其特征是将音乐的一些参数(一个或几个高音、力度、时值)按照一定的数学排列组合,称为一种序列,然后这些编排序列或编排序列的变化形式在全曲中重复。

序列的概念最早用于音高方面,导致20年代出现十二音音乐,其创始人勋伯格在十二音音乐中将音高排列称一定的序列。1936年,他的弟子韦伯恩所作《变奏曲》(作品第27号)的第二乐章,将序列手法进一步发挥,其音高在各音区的分布及音的发声与休止,也按预先确定的序列进行。

二次世界大战后,序列主义作品不断出现,梅西安布莱兹施托克豪森等一批采用序列手法作曲的作曲家,他们将起奏法、速度、节奏、音色、力度、密度等因素都排列成序,从而形成了所谓整体序列主义。

斯特拉文斯基布里顿等古典主义作曲家,也曾尝试过序列主义音乐的创作。

序列主义摒弃了传统音乐的种种结构因素(主题、乐句、乐段以及它们的逻辑发展等)和创作规律,使音乐创作成了数学演算的过程,最终形成的乐曲有很多偶然的成分。

序列主义在电子音乐中得到重用,各种音乐要素被编成序列输入电脑,并通过电子合成器表现出来。

参考文献编辑

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