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新西班牙總督轄區(西班牙語:Virreinato de Nueva España IPA[birei̯ˈnato ðe ˈnweβa esˈpaɲa]),西班牙管理北美洲菲律宾的一个殖民地总督辖地,首府位於墨西哥城。新西班牙總督的管轄範圍包含今墨西哥中美洲(除巴拿馬)、美國加利福尼亚州內華達州猶他州科羅拉多州亞利桑那州新墨西哥州得克萨斯州、今日加拿大英屬哥倫比亞的西南部,加上瓜地馬拉都督府(包含今日的瓜地馬拉、墨西哥恰帕斯州貝里斯哥斯大黎加薩爾瓦多宏都拉斯尼加拉瓜)和古巴都督府(包含今日的古巴、墨西哥恰帕斯州貝里斯多明尼加千里達及托巴哥波多黎各瓜地洛普),以及亚洲菲律賓都督府(包含今日的菲律賓關島加羅林群島馬里亞納群島和短暫領有的北台灣與短暫佔領的德那第蘇丹國)。

新西班牙總督轄區
Virreinato de Nueva España
1521年-1821年
{{{coat_alt}}}
国徽
格言:世界無盡頭英语Plus ultra
国歌:皇家進行曲

1795年,西班牙帝國殖民地最盛疆域。
1795年,西班牙帝國殖民地最盛疆域。
地位 西班牙帝國總督轄區
首都 墨西哥城
常用语言 西班牙語(官方)
其他語言:法語納瓦特語瑪雅語美洲原住民語言菲律賓語
宗教 羅馬天主教
政府 總督轄區
西班牙國王  
• 1535-1556
查理五世 (首任)
• 1813-1821
費爾南多七世(末任)
總督英语List of viceroys of New Spain  
• 1535-1550
安東尼奧·德·門多薩英语Antonio de Mendoza(首任)
• 1821
胡安·奧多諾胡英语Juan O'Donojú政治上領袖(非總督)
立法机构 印度議會
历史时期 殖民時期
1519–1521年
• 總督轄區成立
1521年
1717年5月27日
1739年
1800年10月1日
1819年2月22日
• 西班牙立憲革命廢止了新西班牙總督轄區
1820年5月31日
1821年1810年-
人口
• 1519年
2000萬
• 1810年
500到650萬
货币 西班牙殖民雷亞爾英语Spanish colonial real
先前国
继承国
[[古巴州英语Governorate of Cuba]]
阿兹特克帝国
塔拉斯卡王国
瑪雅文明
法屬路易斯安那
美洲原住民
湯都王國
特拉斯卡拉聯邦
宿霧拉賈國
梅尼拉王國
[[Madja-as英语Madja-as]]
新格拉納達總督轄區
西屬西印度群島
西屬東印度群島
法屬路易斯安那
佛羅里達領地
俄勒岡郡
墨西哥第一帝國
今属于

中國明代傳教士艾儒略所著《職方外紀》稱為「新以西把尼亞」。

1535年後,殖民地開始由新西班牙總督英语List of viceroys of New Spain實行君權統治,總督由西班牙國王指派。首府設在墨西哥城[1][2]

新西班牙的領土有些被其他歐洲強權奪取,有些獨立建國,而其核心區域則一直在西班牙統治下,直到1821年獨立成墨西哥第一帝國,該帝國解體後成為今日的墨西哥中美洲。新西班牙的行政區劃高度在地化,其分區以氣候、地形、原住民人口密度進行劃分。墨西哥中部與南部原住民人口密度高,擁有複雜的社會、政治和經濟組織。墨西哥北部的原住民則是游牧或半游牧民族,本來無法發展成密集人口的社會。然而1540年代於薩卡特卡斯發現了銀礦後,開始湧入更多的定居人口。銀礦不只是新西班牙的經濟命脈,同時也是西班牙快速致富的關鍵,改變了全球經濟。新西班牙是菲律賓貿易在新世界的終點站,使得該地成為西班牙新世界帝國與亞洲帝國之間的重要連接點。

新西班牙王國與西班牙王位之間的關係编辑

1521年,西班牙人征服了阿茲特克帝國後,建立了新西班牙王國這個新世界王國。由於伊莎貝拉一世資助了美洲的探險活動,因此新西班牙國王的頭銜屬於西班牙君主。[3][4]雖然新西班牙為西班牙的附屬地,然而名義上並非殖民地而是一個「王國」,其王位附屬在西班牙王位之下[5]。君主在海外領地中有至高無上的權力。

國王並不僅僅擁有統治權,還擁有所有權:對於美洲領地中的一切財產,國王擁有絕對的所有權;政治上則是獨攬大權的統治者。一切的特權、職位﹑經濟政治或宗教都是由國王掌控。[5]

新西班牙總督轄區1535年在新西班牙王國中建立。是西班牙第一個擁有的總督轄區,也是18世紀波旁改革前僅有的兩個總督轄區之一。

歷史编辑

在1521年之前,西班牙尚未征服阿茲特克帝國時,西班牙人在加勒比海群島及其周邊地區進行的探險和拓荒,在政治上、戰略上、或甚至經濟上都不具重要性。然而西班牙人於這些在加勒比地區先行的探險、征服、拓墾和直轄統治,不但頗具成效,且深遠影響著周邊地區,例如墨西哥和秘魯。[6] 西班牙人所控制的中部美洲當地社會,比起他們在加勒比地區所遇見的社會更加複雜且富裕。對卡斯蒂利亞王權而言,既是重要的機會也是潛在的威脅,因為征服者不受王權約束,而獨自行動。這些中美洲當地社會提供了如同埃爾南·科爾特斯這樣的征服者自治的基礎,甚至從王權中獨立出來。

因此神聖羅馬皇帝兼西班牙國王查理五世於1524年設立了印度議會,以皇家直轄的權力負責監督與確保王權在新世界的利益。

行政區劃编辑

 
1795年的新西班牙版圖
 
1819年與美國簽訂《亞當斯-奧尼斯條約》後的新西班牙北部

相关条目编辑

参考文献编辑

引用编辑

来源编辑

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历史书目编辑

  • Hanke, Lewis. Do the Americas Have a Common History? A Critique of the Bolton Theory (1964)
  • Hurtado, Albert L. "Bolton and Turner: The Borderlands and American Exceptionalism." Western Historical Quarterly 44#1 (2013): 4-20. online
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  • Van Young, Eric. Are Regions Good to Think?. (编) Eric Van Young. Mexico's Regions. Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD. 1992. 
  • Weber, David. J. (编). The Idea of the Spanish Borderlands. New York, NY: Garland Publishers. 1991. 

延伸阅读编辑

  • Altman, Ida and James Lockhart, eds. The Provinces of Early Mexico (UCLA Latin American Center 1976)
  • Altman, Ida, Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador, The Early History of Greater Mexico (Pearson 2003)
  • Bakewell, P.J. A History of Latin America (Oxford U.P., 1997)
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America (Vols. 1–2. Cambridge UP, 1984)
  • Cañeque, Alejandro. "The Political and Institutional History of Colonial Spanish America" History Compass (April 2013) 114 pp 280–291, DOI: 10.1111/hic3.12043
  • Collier, Simon. From Cortes to Castro: An Introduction to the History of Latin America, 1492–1973 (1974)
  • Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519-1810. (Stanford University Press 1964).
  • Lockhart, James. The Nahuas After the Conquest (Stanford University Press)
  • Muldoon, James. The Americas in The Spanish World Order (1994)
  • Parry, J.H. The Spanish Seaborne Empire (1974)
  • Parry, J.H. The Spanish Theory of Empire in the Sixteenth Century (1974)
  • Stein, Barbara H., and Stanley J. Stein. Crisis in an Atlantic Empire: Spain and New Spain, 1808-1810 (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2014) 808 pages.
  • Leibsohn, Dana, and Barbara E. Mundy, Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520-1820. http://www.fordham.edu/vistas, 2015.

外部連結编辑