广陵事变

(重定向自曹丕攻广陵之战

广陵事变三国时期224年和225年曹魏东吴之间的两场军事对抗。尽管当时冲突双方被认为将发生水战,却并无交锋。[4]

广陵事变
三国战事的一部分
日期224年八月至十月,225年八月至十月
地点
广陵,在建业(今南京)对面河口北岸
结果 魏军撤退
参战方
曹魏 东吴
指挥官与领导者
曹丕 孙权
徐盛
兵力
100,000+[1][2][3]

背景编辑

222年,曹魏皇帝曹丕要求220年已名义称臣成为其藩王的吴主孙权送儿子孙登为人质以确保孙权的忠诚。但孙权拒绝,与曹丕决裂,成为独立的吴国统治者。222—224年间,曹丕因此多次下令攻打孙权,但每一次都最终失败。224年末,曹丕从全国调集十万军队,命他们驻扎在广陵,准备大举进攻东吴都城建业(今江苏南京)。[5]

过程编辑

224年七月,曹丕幸许昌,准备大举伐吴。侍中辛毗劝谏认为不是时候,曹丕不听。曹丕知道自己如果仍从河道狭窄的长江上游攻吴,仍将失败。但他知道广陵路宽,可压制孙权军。八月,曹丕留尚书仆射司马懿镇许昌,亲自治水军,九月至广陵。同年稍早,吴人很害怕,在安东将军徐盛建议下,沿长江南岸从建业到江乘都筑上围墙,建篱笆,并在墙上设置假箭楼,以防遭到曹魏的水上进攻。[6]这些工程经历了一晚上就完成了。吴人又在江上设了很多舰船。江水上涨,曹丕隔江望见,认为东吴有人才,未可图。曹丕的船遭到暴风,几乎翻船。群臣大都以为孙权会亲自来战,但侍中刘晔不以为然。孙权果然没有来,曹丕于是退军。征东大将军曹休上表报说吴投降者说孙权在濡须口,中领军卫臻认为是假情报,经查,这一消息果然是伪造的。[7][8][9][10]十月,曹丕回许昌。

225年三月,曹丕又有舟师伐吴的打算,宫正(御史中丞)鲍勋劝谏,被贬为治书执法。五月,曹丕到。八月,以舟师入淮。尚书蒋济上表称水路难通,曹丕不听。十月行幸广陵故城阅兵,士兵十余万,旌旗数百里,和建业隔长江相对。孙权也调集水军阻止曹魏入侵。但相比吴水军的规模,曹丕更担忧天气。时值严冬,大寒,结冰,水师难以进军。[11]曹丕目睹吴军的防御和自身的情境,叹道:“唉!这真是上天要分隔南北啊。”下令诸军撤离广陵寨。[12]吴扬威将军、广陵太守孙韶得知曹丕班师,就派部将高寿率五百敢死队,半路夜袭曹丕,劫获曹丕副车羽盖而归。[1][2][13][14]

后果编辑

撤军后,曹丕于226年驾崩。他的继任者曹叡于228年派曹休石亭之战期间攻吴,这在曹叡年间是最后一次。但吴将周鲂诈降诱导魏军进入伏击圈,击败中计的曹休,魏军因而再败。此后的24年,魏军由攻转守,多次击退吴入侵。东兴之战战败后,魏直至265年魏末帝曹奂禅位建立晋朝代魏的司马炎时也未能夺取任何江南领土。280年,晋发起灭吴之战,才终于统一三国。

注释及参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 《三国志》卷二文帝纪
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 《资治通鉴》卷七十
  3. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). His headquarters were established in the former capital of the commandery, and it was claimed that the army under his command was more than a hundred thousand.  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  4. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). Looking at the unassailable barrier, Cao Pi sighed, "Alas. It is truly the will of Heaven which divides the south from the north." And he gave the order to withdraw.  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  5. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). His headquarters were established in the former capital of the commandery, and it was claimed that the army under his command was more than a hundred thousand.  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  6. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). The Wei forces, however, had evidently gained some surprise, for the defences in that area were weak. A local general, Xu Sheng, organised the preparation of dummy defence walls and turrets along the southern bank of the Yangzi from Jianye downstream to Jiangcheng, and the Wu were also able to concentrate a reasonable fleet to oppose Cao Pi.  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  7. ^ 《三国志》卷二十五辛毗传
  8. ^ 《三国志》卷五十五徐盛传
  9. ^ 《三国志》卷一十四刘晔蒋济传
  10. ^ 《三国志》卷二十二卫臻传
  11. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). This time Sun Quan's forces were ready for the attack, but far more serious from Cao Pi's point of view was the weather. The winter was harsh and early, the Yangzi was partially frozen, and the ships of Cao Pi were blocked by ridges of ice along the shore, with additional danger from small bergs breaking off and floating with the current  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  12. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. Online Publications (PDF). Asian Studies. [10 April 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于8 June 2011). "Alas. It is truly the will of Heaven which divides the south from the north." And he gave the order to withdraw.  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  13. ^ 《三国志》卷一十二鲍勋传
  14. ^ 《三国志》卷四十七孙权传